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Sunday, May 28, 2023

We Remember Their Sacrifice

 Journal Opinion May 24, 2023

Nineteen-year-old Nathaniel Westgate joined the 1st NH Calvary in 1863. He was taken and imprisoned in a Confederate prison where he died. He was one of 10,000 New Hampshire and Vermont men who died either of wounds or disease during the Civil War. 
King Dexter was one of 65 Topsham men that enlisted in WW II. He saw combat in North Africa, Sicily and Normandy before he was killed in action on July 16, 1944.  

David Hildreth of Warren was a member of Company D, 27th Engineering Battalion in South Vietnam. He died during a mortar attack on April 14, 1969. The local Baker River flood control dram was renamed in his honor. His name is inscribed on the Vietnam Memorial Wall in Washington, DC.

Memorial or Decoration Day was first recognized in the period after the Civil War so that “the memory of the brave deeds and nobles sacrifices of our deceased soldiers be kept fresh in the minds of the people.” It was observed annually on May 30 in some states. In 1971, the observance became a national holiday and moved to the last Monday of May.

This column recalls the courage and dedication of 12 local residents who served their country from the Civil War to Iraq. They are just a sample of those  who gave their lives while serving in the nation’s armed services.  

About 10,000 New Hampshire and Vermont soldiers died in the Civil War, both from action and disease. Several hundred were from the local area.  

Amos B. Chase, age 38, was mustered into Union service on Nov 20, 1863, and joined Co. H, 2nd Berdan’s Sharpshooters. Chase, a married man with four daughters and a carpenter, had lived in Newbury and Bradford.  Snipers or sharpshooters got their title using Christian Sharps’ long-range rifles. Their duty was very hazardous, and their effectiveness had a demoralizing impact on the enemy.

Chase was with Company H at the Battle of the Wilderness and the siege of Petersburg, VA, where they were on almost constant skirmishing and picket duty. On June 18, 1864, Chase was killed in action. While his name is on a headstone in Bradford’s Upper Plain Cemetery he is probably buried at the national cemetery near Petersburg.

Nathaniel W. Westgate joined the First NH Calvary in March1864. He was a 19-year-old from Haverhill.  His regiment saw action beginning in June. In early August1864, he was part of several successful cavalry raids targeting Southern railroads. On August 14, Westgate was taken prisoner near Winchester, VA.

 He spent the next five months in Confederate prisons under absolutely miserable conditions. The diary he kept chronicled his declining health. On Jan 7, 1865 he died at Danville Prison, VA. A comrade wrote of Westgate’s death, “thus another noble son of freedom has been lain a sacrifice upon the altar of his country.”  

In 1880, Haverhill-area veterans established the Nathaniel Westgate Post of the Grand Army of the Republic. The post was active in Decoration Day observances until at least 1912.    

All area men who volunteered during the Spanish-American War were in Co. G, 1st Vermont Regiment. They mustered into service on May 16, 1898. They never saw action during the few months of the war, but instead spent a horrible summer at Camp Thomas, Chickamauga Park, GA. They suffered from heat, poor water, typhoid fever, dysentery, disgusting food and lack of medical equipment. At times, 50% of the men were ill. Not one of the 27 members of the regiment who died from those conditions were from the local area.

When the regiment returned to Vermont in Sept 1898, they “were a skeleton of its former self.” Some of those who had contracted malaria or typhoid suffered from it for the remainder of their lives.

The United States was involved in World War I from 1917 to 1918. Over 36,000 men and women from New Hampshire and Vermont were in the military service.  That included over 650 local individuals, of which 35 died in service.  

Fred A. Cook of Post Mills graduated from West Point in 1906. By 1917, he had risen to the rank of major and assigned to the American Expeditionary Force in France. In Oct, 1918, he was part of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive as commander of the 1st Battalion, 23rd Infantry. 

He was said to be “an inspiration to his men, and they would follow him in the face of murderous fire.” On Oct. 8 he was killed while “directing an attack on a strongly entrenched machine gun.” He was awarded the Silver Star and the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism posthumously. He is buried in the American Cemetery near the battlefield where he “fell face to the foe.”  

In 1920, the Earl Brock Post 78 American Legion was formed in Newbury to honor the only soldier from that town who died in World War I. One of the first functions of the Post was to give military honors as Brock was buried in the Newbury Center Town House Cemetery.

Brock grew up in South Newbury and was one of 58 men from Newbury who joined the service. He enlisted in the Army in April 1917 at age 19. He was assigned to Co. E, 55th Telegraph Battalion of the Signal Corps, and shipped to France with the American Expeditionary Force.

As with Major Cook, Private Brock was part of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in Oct 1918. On the 28th, while constructing telephone wires under severe shell fire, he was struck by a shell. He died the following day.

His commanding officer wrote a letter to his parents, remarking on Brock’s “quiet and modest demeanor…efficient and effective in every duty he was called upon to perform.”  

Not all those who served were men or died from battle wounds. Bradford’s Josephine G. Barrett was a member of the Army Nursing Corps. The Corps required participants to be “unmarried, well-trained, respectable women, between the age of 25 and 35 and be a graduate of a nursing school.”  Barrett, 28 met those requirements.

 She was assigned to the U.S. Army Base at Camp Wadsworth, Spartanburg, S.C. She was the first Bradford woman known to have served in the nation’s armed forces.

In Oct 1918, the Spanish influenza epidemic hit the camp hard. Inundated with sick soldiers, military nurses were overworked and susceptible to the disease. Barret became ill, and on Oct. 13, she died.  She is buried in Bradford’s Upper Plain Cemetery.

Thousands of men and women from New Hampshire and Vermont were involved in World War II (1941-1945) and 295 died.

Charles R. Pierce of Orford was a private in the U.S. Army Air Corps. He grew up in Orford and described as “one of our most popular boys.”

 In Nov 1940, he volunteered for service, and after training was shipped to the Philippines, arriving before war broke out. In May 1942, after 120 days of intensive fighting, the Americans at Corregidor surrendered to Japanese forces. Approximately 9,000 Americans were taken prisoner and forced on what was known as the Bataan Death March. Pierce was among them.

The captives were imprisoned under appalling conditions and many died from abuse or disease. On August 3, 1942, Pierce and 14 comrades, died at the Cabanatuan Prison camp in the Philippines. They were buried in a common grave.

In 1950, the bodies of men from that grave were retrieved. The Pierce family travelled to the Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis, Mo.to attend his burial in the local national cemetery. A headstone with his name is in Orford’s West Cemetery.

On Dec 30, 1942, 24-year-old Raymond S. Wood of Woodsville was killed fighting the Japanese at Guadalcanal in the Pacific. Lt. Wood had been stationed there with the 182nd Infantry Regiment as an intelligence officer.

The battle at Guadalcanal was the first major land offensive against the Japanese forces. Wood and his men were involved in the battle for Sea Horse on the island’s north coast. He was mortally wounded leading a combat patrol against the enemy. In a letter to his family, his commanding officer wrote, “after being hit, he survived for about five minutes during which the men in his patrol opened themselves to heavy enemy fire to render aid.”

In the announcement of his death, The Groton Times described him as “a boy of good disposition, honest, frank, enthusiastic to better himself, most devoted to his family and scores of friends.”

Wood’s remains were not recovered from the battle site until 2008. At that time, he was memorialized at the Manila American Cemetery.    

 Sixty-five men from Topsham enlisted in World War II. King F. Dexter was one of two killed. In Oct 1942, at age 20, he was inducted into the Army.  He saw action in North Africa, Sicily and Tunisia before being transferred to England to train for the invasion of France.  

In June, 1944 his company was part of the Normandy D-Day invasion. In July, his family received a letter from him saying that he had been taken prisoner by the Germans but escaped the next day to return to his company.  

On July 16, Dexter was killed in action. He left behind his wife Norma and a son he never saw. In March 1949, his body was shipped by rail back to Bradford and met by a local American Legion post honor guard. He is buried in the East Corinth cemetery. 

In 1950, the United States was supporting South Korea in its fight against North Korean and Chinese troops. Before this conflict ended in 1953, over 190 service members from New Hampshire and Vermont lost their lives.

Lyme resident and Thetford Academy graduate Guy O. Chesley was among the first to give his life. At 19, he was an infantryman in Company L, 9th Infantry Regiment.

 In February 1951, his company was engaged in bitter fighting against Chinese forces at Chaum-Ni. In an attempt to control supply lines, the Americans were taking heavy casualties.

 On the morning of Feb 14, 68 Company L soldiers were found murdered in their sleep. That is the recorded day of Private Chesley’s death, but I could not determine if he was one of the 68 or if he died during the fighting.

Chesley’s body was shipped back to the States in August 1951 and after a memorial service, he was buried in the Lyme’s Highland Cemetery.

In the Spring of 1953, A similar memorial service for another member of the 9th Infantry was held in Orford.  Being memorialized was Cp1 Clayton Huckins, a 20-year-old who had joined the Infantry in July, 1950. 

His sister, Helen Huckins Marsh of Fairlee, recently spoke of her brother as “the go-to guy for things out of doors.” As a youngster he fished along Orford’s Jacobs Brook, “always investigating.” He was known as the type of “buddy who watch others’ backs.”  

On March 12, 1953, Huckins was constructing tactical wire around the company’s position near  a mountain known as “Little Gibraltar” north of the Imjin River. There had been heavy fighting against Chinese troops. He was recently awarded the Bronze Star for historic achievement and was scheduled to come home for his 20th birthday.

He received what was a mortal injury, but continued his hazardous work until unable to do so no longer.  His body returned by train to Fairlee and a memorial service was held in the Orfordville church on the banks of the Jacobs. He is buried in the Orford’s West Cemetery.

With improvements in medical care, the number of soldiers who survived even major wounds increased. However, during the Vietnam war, 197 New Hampshire and Vermont service personnel lost their lives.

On April 14, 1969, David W. Hildreth, a 19-year-old soldier from Warren, NH, died at Quang Tri Province. Hildreth had enlisted in the Army in February, 1968.

He succumbed to injuries from a mortar attack on the base camp of Company D, 27th Engineering Battalion. He never got to see his daughter born eight days following his death.

In a recent letter Hildreth’s cousin Gloria Bumford of Warren, wrote, “he was a typical country boy…who made the decision in later life to serve his country.”  

A memorial service was held in Warren, and he was buried in Glencliff’s High Street Cemetery. A 15-man contingent from Fort Devens conducted the full military rites.

On July 4, 1970, by Legislative decree, the local Baker River flood control dam was renamed the David Wayne Hildreth Dam.

Specialist Alan J. Burgess joined the Woodsville unit of the NH National Guard in 2002. He had grown up in Lisbon, Bradford and Landaff and graduated from Oxbow and River Bend. It was said that he was one who could easily bring a smile to others.

 His unit was deployed to Iraq as part of the 197th Field Artillery Brigade. On Oct 12, 2004. while on patrol as a vehicle gunner in Mosul, Iraq, he was killed by a car bomb. He was one of 65 from the two states who died in the post 9/11 wars.

In an Associated Press release at the time, his mother Karen Moore of Bradford, said “He had a love for his family and for his country. His needs were always last, everybody else came first…they were all there because they had to go.” 

He was buried in the Landaff Central Cemetery on Oct 25. 2004. In 2010, by Legislative action, the Salmon Hole Bridge on Rt 302 in Lisbon was renamed the Specialist Alan J. Burgess Memorial Bridge.

Burgess joined the hundreds of local residents who gave their lives in the military service. On Memorial Day, pause as you drive by a local cemetery. Notice the flags placed on the graves of fallen service members and remember their sacrifice.

Monday, May 1, 2023

Drugs For A Cure

A RECORD LEGACY DRUG STORE; From 1872 until 1974, the Mann family operated a drug store in the center of Woodsville. At left is the original site of the E.B. Mann & Co.  At right, the Opera Block housed the drug store after 1890. At the time it was sold it was said to be the oldest drug store business in the nation to be "continuously owned and operated by the same family."

SERVING A WIDER MARKET: Fairlee pharmacist Will Chapman (1866-1947) began as an Abbot's Drug Store apprentice in 1907. After taking ownership of the store in 1925, "he was favorably known by a large clientele."  He also held a number of town offices. Known for his athletic preparations, he supplied liniments and ointments for the Byrd Antarctic expedition in 1939. 

PATIENT MEDICINE EXAMPLE: This patent cough syrup suppression came to the market in 1874. As with other patient medicines, it contain toxic ingrediencies.

 Journal Opinion April 26, 2023

Bradford Drugs: "H. B. Poole takes great pleasure in announcing that he is opening a New Drug Store at the Union Building in this Village. He has a full selection of Medicines of every kind.” Orange County Journal, Sept 22, 1855

For over two centuries, area druggist and pharmacists  have sold remedies and medicines to both physicians and the general public. Some were stand-alone businesses, and others were part of general stores.  

This column covers the local history of available medicines and cures as they transition from home remedies and patent medicines to modern drugs offered by registered pharmacies. Local histories and vintage newspapers are the sources of information. 

Early physicians had few effective weapons against disease, especially in the face of epidemics. Standard treatments, such as bloodletting and blistering, often resulted in a high death rate.

Herbs were often used to combat the symptoms of diseases. Native Americans introduced both physicians and the general public to plant-based medicines. Those included hemp, red willow and white ash bark, and various roots.

Many residents relied on home remedies, some of which may have actually had curative properties. Vinegar and honey were recognized as helpful both as cures and for maintaining good health.  Garlic clove were used for insect bites and spruce gum for toothaches. Bread poultices were used to draw out infections.

On the other hand, some home remedies did little good or worse. A dirty sock or salt pork wrapped around the neck did not cure a sore throat. Neither Skunk oil to relieve congestion, or skunk cabbage root for asthma brought much relief.  

Apothecaries were chemists who produced and distributed medicines. Their shops served both professionals and the general public. Many physicians also prepared their own drugs.  

The profession started to take shape when colleges of pharmacy were established in  Philadelphia, Boston, and New York in the 1820s, but some locals still gained their knowledge as apprentices.  For a time, those who were trained used the title pharmacists, whereas those without formal training were known as druggists. There were no legal qualifications for either of these practices.  

 In 1852, a national organization of pharmacists was established in Philadelphia. In 1873, pharmaceutical associations were established in both New Hampshire and Vermont.  However, it was not until 1894 that Vermont established a state licensing board for both pharmacies and pharmacists. The following year licenses were granted to 325 applicants.  

During this time, the ill often turned to patent medicines for relief. These proprietary preparations, often with exaggerated claims, were trademarked but not patented by the government.

 Throughout the 19th century, there was an unregulated market for patent medicines. Easily accessible and inexpensive, they were sold as “healing elixirs, nostrums, salves, liniments, and tonics,” and guaranteeing cures for a wide range of illnesses. Some patent medicines actually provided the promised relief, whereas others did not. 

These products were numerous and widely available and they used extensive advertisements in newspapers, and almanacs, featuring first-hand testimonials as to their effectiveness,

Many patent medicines contained alcohol and drugs such as opium as active ingredients and could do more harm than good. For example, Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup, used to treat colic in babies, contained morphine. It was advertised in Orange County from the 1850s to 1898.

Many popular soft drinks, including Pepsi and Coca-Cola, were initially marketed as patent drugs.  

Local druggists and doctors marketed their own versions of patent medicines too. F. H. Keyes of Newbury developed a broad market for Dr. Carter’s Pulmonary Balsam. It was developed by Dr. W. H. Carter of West Newbury, who practiced there from 1827 to 1853. The product was later sold to the Keyes, who peddled it locally and wholesale to a national market.  

In 1849, Carter wrote to a Boston Medical Journal that he “never designed it to be a secret remedy or nostrum; but it had been passed off as such.” As late as 1873, the Keyes were still placing ads warning about counterfeits of their camphor-laced product.    

Between 1866 and 1877, Bradford’s C. C. Doty was a manufacturer and dealer in Doty’s Mandrake Bitters. His advertisements promised “warranted cures” for a wide variety of ailments including piles, liver complaints, and “fluttering of the heart.”  It assured relief for “depression of spirits and constant imagining of evil.”

The unsavorness of patent medicines eventually invited scrutiny. The Progressive movement brought about the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 with federal interstate regulation to “prevent the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious food, drugs, medications and liquors…” New regulations demanded listed ingrediencies, fewer false claims and truthful advertising.

Although the law helped curb medical claims, the impact was not immediate.  Mrs. Winslow’s morphine-laced soothing syrup remained on the market until 1930, even though it was potentially lethal to infants.

Lee’s Save the Baby cough suppression came to market in 1874.  Despite containing toxic camphor, it was marketed for both external and internal use.  In the 1940s, it was a standard remedy in my mom’s medicine cabinet. She would warm the bottle and rub a bit on my congested chest, followed by a spoonful administered internally. It tasted terrible but seemed to help.

Almost every local community, at one time or another, had physicians or druggists who manufactured, distributed, and/or sold medicines. Following are four legacy pharmacies that were mainstays in the commercial centers of the area for decades.  

Woodsville’s E. B. Mann & Co. was that community’s premier drug store from 1872 until its sale in 1974. After 1890, it was located in the Opera Block.  At the time of its sale, it was described as “the oldest drugstore business in the country continually owned and operated by the same family.”.

As with other area drugstores, Mann’s sold more than drugs. After 1895, there was a soda fountain. Blaisdell’s history of Haverhill describes the store’s other offerings in the early 20th century, “they sold soaps, sugar, ketchup, razors and strops, paints and wallpapers, and, except during Prohibition, a full line of spiritous beverages.”

The store also offered a selection of patent medicines, including several of Mann’s own making. Those include Mann’s Bitters and Mann’s Little Liver Pills.

The family sold the store in 1974 to partner Harold Wheeler who had worked for them since 1963. In 1985, it relocated to Butson’s supermarket and renamed the Woodsville Pharmacy.

In Newbury, there were a number of stores that sold drugs in the 19th century.  F. & H. Keyes of Newbury Village advertised a selection of patent drugs in 1851.  

In Wells River, Thomas Barstow’ general store sold medicines as early as 1814. In 1878, W. H. Eaton opened a drugstore on the village’s Main Street. It went through a series of owners and locations.

Around 1900, W. H. Buck was the druggist in Wells River. He is credited with developing the formula for what became known as “Bag Balm.” The Buck family continued to operate a pharmacy until 1924, when it was sold to W.A. Knight. Fourteen years later, in 1939, Knight’s Pharmacy was sold to James G. Thomas.

Thomas Pharmacy “became a fixture on Main Street.” In 1974, the pharmacy was sold to nephew Robert Brock and Duane Hobbs. The lunch counter was known as the “hub of the community.”

In 2002, the pharmacy was sold again and became known as the Wells River Pharmacy and continued to operate until 2017.        

In Fairlee, L. H. Granger operated a general store on Main Street as early as 1807. For a time, it was operated by H.F. Bickford.  In 1891, Dr. Chase from Orford opened it as a drug store with F. W (Fred) Abbot operating it. Abbott promised that the  store’s White Pine Cough Syrup would “positively cure your cough.” In the early 1900s, Abbott’s advertisements included testimonials offered as news items for various patent medicines, with satisfaction guaranteed.

The history of Fairlee mentions that Abbott’s penny candy counter included Zanzivars, cinnamon imperials, Ju-Jus, and licorice. Its soda fountain offered ice cream treats. 

In 1925, William Chapman, who had studied with Dr. Francis Gerald of Warren and been an apprentice for Abbott, took over the store.  In 1939, Chapman supplied Chapman’s Liniment and Chapman’s Ointment for Boils for the men of the Byrd Antarctic expedition. Newspaper reports mentioned that he was known nationally for his athletic medicinal preparations.

 Chapman’s son Leland assumed ownership in 1947 and ran the store until his death in 1988.  Growing up, Lee Chapman was my family’s pharmacist, as he was for most of those who lived in Orford and Fairlee. I can still picture him behind the drug counter in his white coat. In a newspaper interview, Lee’s son Will said, “My father ran the store; prescriptions were 90% of the business.” Unable to find a new pharmacist, the store discontinued the pharmacy portion of the establishment.

In Bradford, Main Street served as the location of a series of stores that sold drugs. George Prichard and Son’s  store opened in the 1840s.  In 1854, H. B. Poole offered his services as a druggist. About  1856, Dr. A. A. Doty opened an apothecary shop. 

H. G. Day’s Bradford Drug Store was opened in 1867, offering drugs, toiletries, patent medicines, and druggist’s groceries. Between 1888 and 1903, the store was owned by A. T. Clarke. Cunningham’s Pharmacy was opened at about the same time. Sisco Pharmacy operated in the Stevens Block from beginning around 1913 and introduced the Rexall brand. In 1925, Sisco sold the business to brothers William and Frank Gove.

In 1935, Kenneth Murdock and George Bancroft purchased the pharmacy. William Gove continued as a pharmacist and the pharmacy was renamed Gove and Bancroft.  William Gove’s nephew, Fletcher Gove, began his career at Thomas Pharmacy in Wells River before becoming a partner pharmacist in the Bradford store in 1959. 

Gove’s son Graham recently recalled his “dad’s patience and good-naturedness toward customers no matter their social or economic status.” He remembered that his father delivered prescriptions after hours to people who were unable to get to the store.

As with other pharmacies, Gove and Bancroft carried far more than prescription drugs. It was the place to go to have photographs sent for developing or to purchase reserved tickets for Bradford Academy’s senior plays. They carried a full selection of gifts and toys. Their “Rexall 1 cent” sales attracted many to what was advertised as “Your Family Drug Store.” 

In 1968, pharmacist Howard Search Jr. joined the pharmacy. In a recent telephone conversation, Search indicated he purchase the business in 1980 when Fletcher Gove retired. In about 1989, the pharmacy moved east across the street to occupy a newly-built store and remained there until it closed in 1992.

Search went on to explain that the practice of pharmacy had evolved dramatically during his career. When he began in 1962, there were lots drug compounding locally.  which he described as a mixture “between the art and science of pharmacy.” By the close of his work, work had become somewhat easier as it was more likely to be dispensing of pre-made pills and other pre-packaged prescriptions.

In about 1984, pharmacist Linda Michelsen opened Crossroads Pharmacy on the Lower Plain. At first, it was in a small location at the four corners and, in 1968, it moved to the former Green Frog store, now the location of East Coast Van. In 1999, New York-based Kinney Drug took over from Crossroad Pharmacy and occupied a new building on the Four Corners.             

In the past two decades, new local pharmacies have opened and others have relocated to new sites. In Woodsville and Haverhill, there are now instore pharmacies at Walmart and Shaw’s. There is also a   Rite Aid pharmacy, part of a national chain of pharmacies.  Bradford’s Hannaford’s has an in-store pharmacy on the Lower Plain.   

Many locals now have their prescriptions filled through mail-order pharmacies or online pharmacies such as Express Script, Optum RX, and Caremark. While the customers of mail orders pharmacies may get to interface with a distant pharmacist they lack the close personal contact they may have received from local and well-established community pharmacists.

Built over decades of operation, familiarity with the primary pharmacists at the four pharmacies mentioned above gave customers confidence in their work. Locals took their advice with the belief that the prescriptions they prepared would provide a path to improved health. 

Saturday, March 25, 2023

Organized Women: Not Just Social


WOMEN'S CLUB WORKERS--In 1961. the Newbury Women's club took possession of the Methodist church building on the Common in Newbury.  As shown in this 2007 photo, the maintenance of this community building has been one of the club's projects. The club celebrates its 100th birthday this year.
Bradford's Fortnightly Reading Club members are shown in historic costumes in this 1916 photo. Begun in 1900, this organization was dedicated to public service and studying history and current events. In 1930, it was renamed the Bradford Women's Club, a group that exited until 1970. 
Journal Opinion, March 22, 2023

“By being involved in church or charitable groups, women were able to find companionship and a way to facilitate change in their community.”  Jane Cunningham Croly, Founder, General Federation of Women’s Clubs 1898

America has experienced a decline in “active civic engagement,” which has been characterized by a loss in membership in traditional women’s organizations. Many such local organizations have ceased to exist. 

This column details the history of women’s role in just a few of the many local causes and organizations that have existed in the past. Those organizations mentioned are just a sample of those that played an important role in their communities. 

Early gatherings of women often involved the “mutual assistance of textile production,” such as sewing circles and quilting bees. It was an opportunity for personal interactions beyond the family, especially essential during the long New England winters.

After 1820, many women joined “female charitable societies.” Their meetings included reading aloud religious publications and gathering items for the towns’ needy. “Feeling the worth of our time” was a phrase that summed up their efforts.

Before the 1850s, most women’s groups were either church-sponsored aid societies or affiliated with men’s groups. Outside of the church, women played a major role in establishing and maintaining public libraries. Women kept libraries alive as trustees, patrons, and librarians.

 In 1868 “a few ladies” established the Newbury Village Library Association, and Martha Tenney donated a library building. Woodsville’s Ladies’ Charitable Society was formed in 1871 to establish a village library. In the 1870s, Orford’s Hannah Willard Sanborn established a public library in her family’s store.

 In 1874, the Bradford Social Library Society breathed new life into “the lagging library organization by the contribution of $1 each from 63 ladies.”

 Laura Currier Whitney created a library in her Haverhill home in 1880. In 1898, Mary Benton donated the front room of her North Haverhill home and 500 books to create a library. 

Women also played a significant role in 19th century reform movements, including the abolition of slavery, the temperance movement, and women’s suffrage.  

In the abolition movement, women took a substantial role in anti-slavery petition drives and public meetings, but their role was a subject of debate.  As with many issues of the day, many felt that women did not properly belong in male-dominated groups.

When, in 1853, activist Lucy Stone spoke in Orange County, the local newspaper suggested, “There is something shocking in the idea of a lady’s going about haranguing men and women on political subjects.”    

In the 1870s, the creation of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in New Hampshire and Vermont gave local women a role in the battle against alcohol.  There were local WCTU chapters in East Haverhill, Piermont, East Corinth, Newbury, and Bradford. 

East Haverhill’s Ellen Ruddick Richardson was elected state WCTU president from 1899 to 1918.  She spoke widely on behalf of the movement and was recognized nationally for her work.  Women would go on to play a major role in the passage of the Constitutional amendment that created national prohibition. 

Through their leadership and advocacy, women played a significant role in achieving rights for women. In 1869, the New Hampshire Woman Suffrage Association was founded. A similar organization was formed in Vermont in 1883. These groups lobbied for voting rights, access to higher education, and equal pay for women.

Not dissuaded by early failures in lobbying efforts, these groups continued to seek reforms. As a result of the “constant heckling of the militant women,” voting rights in local elections for women were achieved.

Women’s service during World War I helped to tip the balance toward expanded voting rights. In 1919, the U.S. Constitution was amended to grant full voting rights to women. This was a women-led victory that was 70 years in the making.

In 1897, the National Congress of Mothers began what was referred to as an “experiment in every way.” It was focused on the education and welfare of children through the “mutual helpfulness” of local mothers’ clubs.

Between 1909 and 1920, the East Thetford’s Mother’s Club was one of the first in the area.  In the early 1920s, there was a very active club in West Fairlee Center followed by one in South Fairlee (1927).

In 1940, the Bradford Mother’s Club was formed to promote childhood education and parent-child relationships. By 1951, there were similar organizations in Waits River, East Corinth, and East Topsham.  Health clinics, pre-school activities and programs on child development were common.   

 Piermont, Thetford, and South Ryegate also had active mother’s clubs.

In the mid-20th century local public schools did not offer programs for youngsters before the first grade.  Pre-school mother’s groups were formed to provide these needed services. In 1949, a group filled pre-school needs in Waits River and West Topsham. Programs included health screening, and swimming and primary education lessons.

The following year, a similar group was formed in Bradford. It operated a pre-school program for members’ children. It was very active with both programs and fund-raising activities. Over the years it lobbied for creating pre-school programs within the Bradford school system. 

Even in the 20th century, church-related women’s groups were the most common type of women’s organizations. These groups were often the backbone of local churches providing workers and funding for church programs.  

Every local church had an active women’s group, known by a variety of names, including Women’s Fellowship, United Methodist Women, Ladies’ Aid, Catholic Women’s Club, Willing Workers, and the Guild.

They offered an opportunity for church women to gather together for mutual support in what is now referred to as women’s ministry. Their activities range from Bible study to organizing events and activities, mission support, and raising funds to support church programs and facilities. 

As a result  of their efforts, parsonages and churches were renovated, hymnals purchased, funeral gatherings had refreshments, shut-ins were remembered and church programs reflected a woman’s touch.  

In addition to specific church groups there was at least one non-denominational group. Organized in 1941, Church Women United combined the work of area church women.  It was part of a national ecumenical movement. Bradford’s Diane Smarro said the group “encouraged church women to come together in a spirit of community with others around the world.”

 Over the years, women of at least 14 area churches organized mission work, local charity efforts, UNICEF drives and annual World Day of Prayer observances. The last reported local activity was a prayer meeting in South Ryegate in 2004.

After the 1960s, there was a steep drop in the number of women participating in church women’s groups. Locally, this resulted from fewer potential members as church attendance declined. Mobility cut traditional ties to local churches. As women entered the workforce, there was less time or interest in participating in those groups. For several groups, the pandemic was the last straw.

When asked about the decline of the women’s group at Bradford’s Methodist church, member Connie Linnell of Topsham recalled that the group “took care of everything in the church but declined because young people didn’t want to go the meetings.”

Women’s auxiliary groups have formed in connection with men’s organizations. The Women’s Relief Corps was the first of several veterans’ auxiliary groups. That group’s local chapters helped war widows and orphans as well as disabled veterans. In 1901, Bradford’s’ Calista Robinson Jones was the national president of the Corps, and the group’s national headquarters was at her home.

 Women’s auxiliaries were formed after World War I when American Legion posts were established. They were chartered in Bradford and Wells River in 1921. Similar groups were formed as companion organizations for the Veterans of Foreign Wars posts following World War II. Both auxiliary organizations played an important role in community and veteran affairs.

There were also women’s groups attached to fraternal organizations. The Order of the Eastern Star was established in 1869 as an auxiliary for local Masonic lodges. While it included a few men, it was primarily a women’s group dedicated to friendship, personal growth, and community service projects. 

Eastern Star lodges were in Wells River, Bradford, North Haverhill, Warren, and Orford.  As membership dwindled, most of these vanished.  The Lodge in Bradford closed several years ago.  

Similarly, there were women’s auxiliary lodges for the Odd Fellows. The Rebekah Lodge #45 was chartered in Woodsville in 1887 and by 1916, had a membership of 205. Rebekah Lodges were established in Bradford in 1890 and in North Haverhill in 1903.  Additionally, there were local units in Post Mills, Wells River, and Barnet. All have been disbanded.

When Extension Services were established in Vermont (1913) and New Hampshire (1915), one of the programs was local Home Demonstration or Homemakers Clubs. In each county, a Home Dem Agent organized programs to improve the lives of rural women. 

There were clubs in each local community with some communities having more than one. Programs included information on topics such as cooking, health, gardening, and clothing.

In the 1890s, a new movement for women’s organizations led to the creation of the Federation of Women’s Clubs in New Hampshire and Vermont.  By 1889 there were 97 such local clubs in Vermont.  In 1915, the Bradford Fortnightly Club, East Thetford’s Thursday Club, and Wells River Study Club were among the locals.

 The Bradford’s Woman’s Club, which had existed since 1900, voted to disband in 1970. Like other woman’s clubs, it had played a significant role in the community.  These clubs suffered for some of the same reasons that caused a decline in church-related groups. 

The South Ryegate Women’s Club was formed in 1927.  Cindy Fraiser was the last president of the organization in 2005. She said the group organized programs to help the community, including building a playground and providing scholarships. “What is missing,” Fraiser said, “is the chance to get together with your women friends to do things for the community.”

As with many area women’s clubs and other organizations, the only mention of past membership and activities are in obituaries as members pass away.

 There are several local women’s groups that have survived the changes that have doomed others. One group that has continued to be active is the East Corinth Women’s Fellowship. The online description indicates that the group is “loosely associated” with the local church.

Sue Parmenter, who describes herself as the “head facilitator,” said that they have expanded to be more inclusive with women who are not necessarily church members. She said the club has about 50 members and meets about ten times yearly. 

The Oxbow Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution was organized in 1892 and continues to meet at Newbury’s Oxbow schoolhouse. Its area membership meets seasonally and contributes to “historical, educational, and patriotic causes.”

The Rondo, centered in Orford and Fairlee, is in its 103rd year and survived the pandemic to emerge strong.  It is “dedicated to supporting women’s needs, learning more about the world, and giving back to the community.”

Member Eva Daniels of Orford told me recently that there are about 40 current members. She added that the organization raises funds to share with  worthy local causes and that meetings often feature informative speakers. 

The Newbury Woman’s Club celebrates its 100th anniversary this year.  The club has its roots in the Lend-a-Hand Club organized by young women in 1910.  It was initially very active and assisted the Red Cross during World War I.  Interest waned until 1922-23 when the Newbury Woman’s Club was formed.

According to the Newbury history, the club has “continued its interests in education, legislation, government, the fine arts, crafts, recreation, and international relations, as well as civic affairs.”

There also continue to be informal women’s groups in the area.  Members gather to knit, garden, discuss books or share fellowship.  There are also a number of professional women’s groups and organizations dedicated to women’s rights and the prevention of violence against women. 

Women have also taken a prominent role in political and social advocacy organizations open to both men and women, as well as taking positions in all levels of government.  

As I write this column, there are hundreds of the world’s most influential women meeting at an International Summit in Abu Dhabi to celebrate International Woman’s Day.  Those women will forge new bonds and to work together to confront societal issues and create relationships that will last a lifetime.

Those are precisely the goals that local women’s groups have achieved for almost 200 years. In new ways, local women continue to generate both continuity and change in our communities.

Monday, February 27, 2023

Young and Restless: Youth Organizations


1910 postcard of Boston & Main Railroad YMCA, Woodsville, NH.

AMERICA'S FIRST SCOUTS:  In Oct 1909, a group of Barre boys under the leadership of William Foster Milne met at the First Baptist Church as the first Boy Scouts troop in the nation.  That organization is just one of many groups that provide youth with life-enhancing skills. 

Journal Opinion, Feb. 22, 2023

The history of American youth organizations spans more than 200 years. This column describes that history in New Hampshire and Vermont. These organizations were led by adults, but aimed at young people. Often the main targets were youngsters who might be at risk when outside the control of families and schools. Most organizations were started locally by concerned parents, educators, and pastors.  

Not all youth groups are covered here. Athletic youth groups and school clubs will not be covered in this column as they have been the subject of both previous and future articles. Small informal youth clubs are important, but will not be included as they usually come and go as interests waxed and wanes and kids outgrow them. That being said, secret club houses and handshakes create fond memories for many.   

Religious themes and church affiliations were significant for most of these early youth-oriented organizations. During most of the last two centuries, Sunday schools have been attended by a large number of local youths. For that reason, few other youth activities were held on Sunday morning.

 The Sunday or Sabbath school movement was established in Vermont in the early 19th century, with meetings in West Newbury as early as 1801. While Sunday school provided religious instruction to individuals of all ages, a significant goal was to reach children. 

After 1850, the Juvenile Mission Society movement established several chapters in Vermont and involved youth in mission work.  Centered in Baptist and Methodist churches it was recognized as America’s first national youth group. 

Local newspapers regularly reported on these church-based youth groups. In the 1880s, Woodsville churches were said to have “flourishing” Sabbath schools, a feature replicated throughout the valley.

In the 1920s, vacation Bible school programs were held locally during the summer. In Orford in the late 1940s, this program was held in the Orfordville Grange Hall.

 In the late 1940s, I attended Sunday School at the Orford Congregational Church.  I recall Grammy Sanborn leading us in the rousing Christian anthem “Life Is Like A Mountain Railroad.” We learned Bible passages and completed arts and crafts projects.  

In the early 20th century, there was a movement to reach older youth who didn’t fit into existing church youth programs.  Known as the Christian Endeavor Movement, there was a group in Bradford in 1887 and soon after in Piermont and Wells River.  It appeared to be non-denominational and included both religious and social activities.

By the 1940s, these groups had been replaced locally by Congregational Pilgrim Youth Fellowship and the Methodist Youth Fellowship.  A similar youth group was formed in nearby Presbyterian churches.  Until their decline in the later 1960s, these groups filled an essential religious and social function for older youth.    

There was also the Catholic Youth Organization (CYO) which was active at Catholic Churches in Bradford, Wells River, and Woodsville from the late 1950s until the mid-1960s.

Newspaper articles in the United Opinion and the Twin State News regularly reported on local CYO events.  Youth participated in church events and socials, took trips to religious shrines, and met with other church youth groups.

One 1960 newspaper article mentioned young CYO member Ronnie Bonneau of Bradford. After graduating from Bradford Academy, he attended seminary. . Father Bonneau passed away in 2021, having served as a long-time missionary in Paraguay and as pastor in several domestic parishes.   

Originally founded in England, the first Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) unit was formed in Boston in 1851 as a “home away from home” for seamen and merchants.

The first YMCA locals were established in Manchester in 1854 and in Burlington in 1866. Over the following decades facilities were established in various larger communities in both states.  The organizations sponsored various social and recreational programs for youngsters. 

Also founded in England, the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) affiliates formed in Vermont in 1919 and in New Hampshire the following year. The focus was described as “a voice for change.”  Over the years, its members have worked to empower women, fight discrimination and “promote peace, justice, and freedom.”

Both organizations encouraged physical activities.  This was especially significant at a time when young women were thought too fragile to exercise. They sponsored boys and girls summer camps at Vermont and New Hampshire lakes.  Locally, Camp Billings on Lake Fairlee was established in 1907.

There were no other local YMCA facilities, but both local newspapers had many items about local youngsters attending YMCA regional and state functions. This included camps, athletic tournaments, and conferences. Local students participated in the organization’s NH Youth and Government Model Legislature.  

Beyond religious affiliated youth groups, the now-popular 4-H youth development program originated in the Midwest in 1902.  By 1912, the group had expanded and adopted the4-H title and familiar 4-leaf pin.  Initially established in schools for after school activities, it soon became a wide-spread community organization. 

In 1914, as part of the new Vermont Extension Service, new 4-H clubs began to form. By 1916, there were 80 clubs in 65 towns throughout the state with a membership of more than 5,000 girls and boys.

It began in Grafton County in 1916 as the “Boys’ and Girls’ Agricultural Club Work.” Blaisdell’s history of Haverhill mentions dozens of 4-H clubs in that community.  Prior to 1926, East Haverhill had one of the first in the county. By 1927, there were 4-H clubs in Pike, North Haverhill and Woodsville.

The units were generally divided by sex, with boys learning crops and animal production, while girls were encouraged to learn domestic skills. Often a unit concentrated on a single skill such as canning, sewing, animal care or outdoor experiences.

As 4-H became the largest youth development organization, similar clubs were found in all towns from Piermont to East Thetford.

As with other communities, Newbury “had its full share of 4-H groups.” If displays at the North Haverhill Fair are any indication, many vibrant groups still exist today. For over 40 years, the Rocking Horse 4-H Club met in Piermont under the leadership of Joan Osgood. Two Bradford women recall their 4-H experiences. Nancy Jones recalls raising and marketing chickens as a 4-H project in 1957. “It was a great experience,” Jones said.  Bobette Scribner added “Stories for the lifetime came out of 4-H.”

A similar rural youth program was established by the Grange. The Grange was founded in 1867 as a national farmers’ advocacy group. The Adelphi Grange was established in Newbury Center in 1874. The Oliverian Grange was organized in 1876 in East Haverhill.  Grange units have played an active role in communities from Haverhill, Piermont, and Orfordville to Bradford, Thetford, West Newbury, and West Topsham.

For a century, the Grange has sponsored a program for children aged 5 to 14.  Its focus was to provide leadership training and life skills. Members of the Junior Grange held social functions and participated in skills contests and seminars. Local members attended special camping activities at Camp Ingalls, the 4-H camp in North Hero, Vermont.  At 14, youth could attain full adult membership in the Grange. 

Another fraternal society with youth-focused groups within its “family” was the Masonic organization.  In 1919, the DeMolay organization was established for boys 12 to 20. It was dedicated to teaching citizenship, leadership, and public service.  Locally, there were chapters in Wells River, North Haverhill, and Wentworth. Efforts to establish units in Bradford and Haverhill around 1967 never materialized.

Rainbow Girls was established in 1922 and created opportunities for community service and leadership for girls 10-20.  Newspaper notices mention this organization in Fairlee (1927), Bradford (1946), North Haverhill (1952), and Wells River (1960).

Two of today’s most recognized youth organizations are the Boy Scouts of America and the Girl Scouts of the USA.  The Scouting movement has been a significant offering for local youth for over a century.

Troop #1 of the Boy Scouts was formed in Barre VT in October 1909. William Foster Milne Of Barre had been active in the early scouting movement in Scotland.  He reorganized a group of boys at the First Baptist Church in Barre into a scouting troop. In 1910, Camp Abnaki in North Hero, VT opened as the first official BSA/YMCA camp.

A boys’ group, much like the Boy Scouts, formed in Woodsville in 1910 and received an official BSA charter in 1916. In 1912, a meeting for interested boys was held in Piermont and in Lyme the following year. Pike had a very active troop chartered in 1915. Haverhill followed in 1928 and North Haverhill in 1945.

In Vermont, a BSA troop met in East Corinth about 1921.  In 1925, this troop shared their enthusiasm with 28 boys in Bradford and that group was granted a charter. From the earliest days of the troops, the boys were taking hikes, working on merit badges, and performing community service. 

The Orford-Fairlee troop was established before 1947. That year, they sponsored a winter carnival with contests on the Fairlee common and skiing on the Ridge in Orford. A Carnival Ball topped it off.

A troop was chartered in West Topsham in 1969. After it was discontinued, the remaining boys joined the East Corinth troop and later the one in Bradford. 

Vermont Governor Deane Davis was a junior member of Barre Troop #1.  He later described the movement as “dedicated to teaching boys of immature years the basic principles of good conduct, good citizenship, crafts, the skills of outdoor life and self-discipline.” 

In 1962, Bradford’s Gary Moore achieved the rank of Eagle Scout, the first in his troop.  Recently, I asked Moore to respond to Governor Davis’ comment.  Agreeing with the Governor, Moore said his “Scouting years have had a major impact on my life…, I learned about teamwork and leadership…and community service.” 

Founded on the belief that girls deserved the outdoor living experience that boys had, the Campfire Girls was established in 1910 as a sister organization to the Boy Scouts.  It was established in Thetford and Sebago Lake, Maine by Luther and Charlotte Gulick and Charlotte Farnsworth of Thetford.  They believed that girls deserved the outdoor living experiences that boys had. As the Rutland Daily Herald wrote in 1911, the organization would “lead young femininity afield in a healthy, womanly way, and give the girls a chance to become acquainted with nature.”

Within two years, there were 60,000 members, with many attending associated summer camps.  The first of those was Thetford’s Camp Hanoum.  There was a campfire unit in Groton (1920), West Topsham (1924), and Piermont (1940).

The other sister organization was the Girl Scouts.  The first troop in America was in Savanna Georgia in 1912. It began a movement “where every girl could unlock her full potential, find lifelong friends, and make the world a better place.”

Perhaps the first local Girl Scouts l troop was established in Pike in 1918 and immediately began an aggressive program of “camping, badge-blasts and crafts.” Troops were established in other communities in the area including Newbury and Woodsville (1922), Bradford (1925), and North Haverhill (1943).

As with the Boys’ troops, local Girl Scouts groups sometimes waned only to be reestablished. The Fairlee troop renewed about 1950 and the Newbury troop about 1955. In 1959, Thetford’s Camp Hanoum was acquired by the Girl Scouts and renamed Camp Farnsworth. 

Reading the many newspaper notices of the Girl Scouts and Brownies, there is certainly more to the organization than cookies. 

Throughout history, American youth organizations have provided opportunities for co-ed activities. It was not uncommon for local scouting groups to hold such events. As locals often participated in district events, members met youth from neighboring towns or even from throughout the state.    

There were other youth groups. Some were locals ranging from a Young Farmers group in Piermont to teen center groups in Bradford.   

Since they first appeared in America, youth organizations have not been without their controversies. Exclusions from membership based on sex, age, race, or religious affiliation and controversies over subjects covered or activities undertaken. Funding shortages and adult misbehavior have weakened organizations effectiveness.  In some cases, the controversies led to the demise of the organizations while others were strengthened by their resolve to survive.   

 In 2014, the Vermont Legislature recognized Newbury’s Marilyn Fuller’s 64-year 4-H leadership in both Vermont and New Hampshire, “helping both youth and adults to learn, grow and work together.”  Fuller’s dedication is just one example of the many adults who made youth organizations work.  Some were paid while many were not.

Adults who grew up in these organizations recall their experiences and the life lessons learned, and the adults who made those memories possible. Despite the scandals that sully some, most of those who worked with youth were heroes. They were, and continue to be, the adult personifications of their organizations’ goal.  America’s youth are better off for them.   

To access the other 147 articles on this blog, use the search bloc on pg 1. Enter a term you wish to search and articles will show up at the top of pag2.   

Wednesday, February 1, 2023

Lost To Technology


TWO-MAN SMITHY. This 1919 photo shows Warren Davis (left) and George Jewell working in Davis' blacksmith shop near the falls in Bradford.  Davis began his 50-plus year career in 1886. Jewell later set up his own blacksmith shop in East Corinth specializing in horseshoeing.  Davis later sold an adjoining lot to an automobile dealership at a time when automobiles were greatly reducing the need for blacksmiths. (Bradford Historical Society)  

At noon on Wednesday, January 31, 1951, eight Bradford women lost their jobs.

At locations throughout the valley, local telephone operators were replaced by the automated  dial system in the 1950s. They were “uncrowned heroes of patience, gentleness, and courtesy.”

 Gone was the “human aspect of a mutual friend,” who often knew which store you wanted when you asked for “the grocery store.”  Gone was the original 911, whose quick thinking assisted in the face of a fire or other emergency. Gone was the valuable source of local information and perhaps a bit of local gossip. 

Their positions were lost forever to technology.

This column describes other local occupations lost to technological change.  Many of them were vital to the community’s daily life before passing into scarcity, obscurity or complete oblivion. Some disappeared in the 19th or 20th century, while others are still disappearing today.      

 Local wagon and carriage makers were essential in the 19th century.  Carriage-making reached the height of its development at the end of that century and then declined rapidly.  By 1915, automobiles outnumbered horse and buggies nationwide, although horse-drawn vehicles could still be seen on local roads.

Most area towns had at least one wagon maker. Beginning in the late 1880s, Julius March of Newbury achieved fame throughout Vermont and New Hampshire.  It was said that he “worked painstakingly making and repairing carriages etc.”  When the demand for carriages declined, he turned to cabinet-making.

Carlos Bagley of Bradford “was considered second to none in the state.” He moved to Bradford from Piermont in 1881 and began almost 50 years of producing carriages, sleighs, and farm and express wagons at a mill on South Main Street.

The prevalence of horse-power created related businesses such as blacksmithing, wheelwrights, harness makers, and operators of livery stables.

The blacksmith was an essential craftsman in local communities. Before the Industrial Revolution, they were the sole manufacturers  of metal tools. Locally, they continued to make or repair tools, wheels, hinges, and other iron items. Farriers specialized in producing iron shoes for horses or oxen.

 In 1886, there were nine blacksmiths in Haverhill, four in Orford and three in Piermont. The 1888 Orange County Gazetteer lists twelve in Corinth, eight in Newbury and six in Bradford.

Fran Hutton was one of the many Corinth blacksmiths. He lived in Corinth for 50 years, during which he operated a shop. In 1900, he was listed as a wheelwright as well. In 1909, there was enough of a demand for his services that he made an addition to his shop.

The decline in the number of horses and the mass-production of tools significantly reduced the needs for local blacksmiths. 

 Before the 20th century, most items were stored in wooden containers. A skilled cooper was a valued craftsman in each community. Jeremiah Ingalls, who came to Newbury in 1787, was “a cooper by trade and singing master by profession.” In 1871, it was reported that 94-year old Abner Palmer of North Haverhill had worked at the cooper trade until over 90 years old and was still able. 

In the 19th century, small woodenware shops and factories replaced single part-time workers. Page’s Box Shop in East Corinth, Proctor Brothers’ stave factory in Bradford village, Henry Hood’s wooden tub shop in Topsham, and Stone & Wood Company’s box mill in Woodsville are all examples of woodware production. Many items once produced by these manufacturers are still in use but made from other materials.

During the 19th century, many small tanneries existed in the area.  The months-long process by which workers transferred hides into leather was labor-intensive, exhausting and dangerous. The mills were filled with noxious odors and the wastewater was toxic. 

As early as 1789, Oliver Hardy of Bradford and later his son George had a tannery in Bradford village. In 1869, J. & T.P Currier had a tannery in Haverhill.

Tanneries used the tannin produced by bark mills to process leather.  In 1850, there were 126 bark mills in Vermont. Until the 1880s, bark mills processed bark, roots, and branches into a fine powder known as tanbark.   

Millwork was extremely dangerous. In the early 1840s, Frank B. Palmer’s leg was caught in the machinery of a Bradford bark mill.  He was taken to Haverhill where Dr. Anson Brackett amputated the limb.

Palmer’s loss had profound consequences to 19th century prosthetics. In 1846, Palmer patented a new prostatic leg that “surpassed in elegance and utility previous models.”  Known as the Palmer Leg, it was widely used for disabled veterans of the Civil War.

 After 1880, tannin was replaced by chromium salts, which significantly reduced the processing time and eliminated bark mills.

 It was not uncommon for  a tanning mill owner to operate both a bark mill and work as a shoe or harness maker. As early as 1815, Robert Whitelaw of Ryegate operated a tannery on his farm at which he produced shoes and boots.  At one time, there were10 shoemakers in Ryegate, some of whom had shops with apprentices. 

Others were both farmers and shoemakers. These part-time shoemakers carried their kits from house to house, making and repairing boots and shoes. After the middle of the 19th century, mechanized processes began to replace individual craftsmen and shoemakers were relegated to repairing footwear. 

Leatherworkers also made harnesses, saddles, and horse collars. They learned their trade working as apprentices for established harness makers. John Buxton was a Newbury harness maker who took Ebenezer Stocker on as an apprentice and later as a partner. Around 1886, Stocker accepted Henry Lowd as a three-year apprentice.  Completing his apprenticeship, Lowd opened a harness business in Bradford and Newbury, serving customers from Warren to Fairlee.

The Connecticut River was once the workplace of log-driving river men.  After 1810, local lumbermen built rafts from boxes of logs, loaded them with area products, and floated them down the river, returning on foot. 

The first long-log drive from the great northern woods to the mills in southern New England was held in 1868. Over the next 46 years, this annual event represented the nation’s longest log drive. The drives began when the ice went out.

 Crews of hundreds of men and horses guided millions of board feet of lumber through dangerous river sections. The stretch from Fifteen Mile Falls north of McIndoe Falls to south of Lyme and Thetford was one of the most hazardous in the 345 miles of the river.  

The most dangerous part of the drive for river men was when jams occurred.  With hundreds of logs piled against each other like giant jackstraws, men had to pry them loose with pikes and peaveys.

The men constantly risked their lives.  They could easily be crushed in an avalanche of loosened logs or sucked under by rapids. Those who lost their lives were often buried in empty pork barrels.     

By 1915, the northern forest had been harvested of long logs. Drives of four-foot pulpwood continued until the 1940s. shortly before the construction of hydroelectric dams..  The rivermen on the Connecticut were no more. 

In the 1850s, area farmers shifted from raising sheet to having dairy cows. At first, the milk was used in the production of cheese and butter. The number of farms in Vermont peaked in 1880 at 35,522.  According to the 1888 Orange County Gazetteer, the county has 3,400 farms with 13,072 dairy cows.

By 1900, half of the farms in Vermont and one-third of those in New Hampshire had dairy as their largest “crop.” By the l920s a “river of milk” flowed from dairy farms to eastern urban markets.

However, economic challenges, competition, and the increased cost of production caused a steady decline in the number of small dairy farms. As older farmers retired, younger men  and women were unwilling to take on the uncertainty and labor-intensive tasks of farming.

By 2009, Orange county had only 102 dairy farms and Grafton county had about 40.  It is estimated that there are currently less than 600 dairy farms in Vermont and less than 100 in New Hampshire. There are still workers in the dairy industry, but their numbers are a mere shadow of those of a century ago. 

Ice harvesting was another industry impacted by new technology.  Before electric refrigeration, ice was harvested from area rivers and lakes during winter and stored in private or professional icehouses for later use.  It was winter’s cash crop.

Accounts published in local newspapers documented this annual activity. In January 1883, 20 men hauled ice for the Bradford Ice Company to be sold throughout the area.  In 1896, Orford’s icehouses were filled with ice of “large quantities and of most excellent quality” harvested from Lake Morey.

It was dangerous work. The equipment included sharp saws, picks, and tongs.  Heavy chunks of ice were wrestled to the shore and into ice houses. There was always the danger of men, horses and wagons breaking through the ice into the frigid water. 

The expansion of electric home and business refrigerators and electric milk coolers on area farms after 1930, reduced the market for ice. It eliminated the need for both ice harvesters and the men who made home deliveries.

 From the 1840s to the 1960s, railroad station masters were the face of the railroad in each community. They managed the depot, handled mailbags, sold tickets, operated the telegraph, and were the freight and express agents.

When the railroad functions were replaced by motor vehicles, railroads began to discontinue passenger and freight services. The Woodsville passenger depot closed in 1960 and the stations at Bradford and Fairlee had their last passenger train in 1965.

Two station masters stand out for their lengthy service. In 1914, Burnside Hooker moved to Bradford and became station master.  He continued until his retirement in 1955. 

During his years of service, he saw improvement in nearby railroad bridges, signal systems, and the changes from steam- to diesel-powered locomotives.  Initially, the station wagon that transported passengers to and from the station was horse-drawn.  Hooker was highly respected and played a significant role in Bradford town affairs.

Joseph Alger, Fairlee’s station master, played a similar role. He took over the station in 1922 and continued until his retirement in 1957. Each summer, the station was especially busy with passengers and their luggage bound for the area’s youth camps.

Alger’s interest in presenting a positive atmosphere at his depot was recognized in the July 1949 Reader’s Digest. An article described the well-kept Fairlee station as a “shining example of what an energetic station agent can do.” Another national magazine article drew attention to the attractive gardens he maintained immediately across the tracks from the station.

 Until the 1880s, typesetters in the publishing industry set up copy one letter at a time, selecting them from either upper or lower cases above their desks. An advertisement for three female typesetters indicated that this was one occupation open to women.

In the 1880s, this laborious technique was replaced by a hot metal typesetting machine known as a linotype. This allowed one worker to perform the labors of as many as six.  News items in Bradford’s United Opinion referred to both men and women workers.

 In 1921 Caledonian-Record linotype operator Ruth Impey set a Vermont record by producing six lines of copy per minute, representing 7,000 letters in an hour. In 1929, Lolabel Allen (Hood) began working as a linotype operator at the United Opinion. Working beside male operators, she held the position until the late 1930s.

In the 1970s, the linotype was replaced by compugraphic typesetters and then by computers.  Journal Opinion publisher Michelle Sherburne recalls working on both of devices to lay out copy.      

Going back to the 19th century Orange and Grafton county gazetteers, I found occupations listed that could have been included in this article. Makers of brooms, gloves, ladders, bobbins, baskets, coffins, bricks, paper, linen thread, and fishing rods are no lover as prevalent as they once were.

 Proprietors of  livery stables, express offices, billiards halls, creameries, grist mills and steamboats are also not as poplar. So too are miners, penmanship teachers, and tailors as well as home deliverers of coal, meat, and milk.

It is difficult to predict the occupations that will join this list over the rest of this century. Undoubtedly, a significant number will either disappear or be significantly altered by technological changes.  If recent news reports are any indication, future columns such as this one may be written by an AI  program such as ChatGPT.

 I can assure you this one was not. 

For a complete list of the 145 articles published in this column since 2007, go to the search block on the right side of page 1 and put in "list."  It will appear at the top of page 2.  To select any post, use the search feature again.