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Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Murder Most Vile (Part One)

LAST PUBLIC HANGING IN NEW HAMPSHIRE: On May 6, 1868, Samuel Mills was hanged on a special gallows next to the jail in Haverhill Corner. Thousands gathered to see the execution. Mills can be seen in a white shroud at the upper center of the photograph. 

CHRISTIE WARDEN'S MURDERER: George Abbott aka Frank Almy was executed at the NH State Prison on May 16, 1892 for the murder of Hanover resident Christie Warden.  His execution brought to an end a long career of crime that impacted a number of the towns in the area.

CROWD SURROUNDS ALMY'S HIDEOUT:  To avoid capture for the murder of Christie Warden, Frank Almy did out in the Warden's barn.  On August 19, a crowd of local men surround the barn. With shouts of "lynch him," Almy was hauled away.

This is a chapter we would gladly omit, but we should not be deemed a faithful historian if we did not write it.”  William Little, The History of Warren, New Hampshire, 1870

This is how Little introduced his chapter “A Brief Account of Two Murders.” I have avoided this topic before, but tackle it now. As with Little, I give brief accounts of local murder cases from 1739 to 1925.

As there is more information than one column can accommodate, the topic will be presented in two or three parts. The first one will cover local first degree murder cases in which the perpetrator was found guilty and punished. The others will be published over the next couple of months and will cover other local cases. The information for both columns is taken from local histories, online sources and newspapers archives.

Death was a constant fear for early settlers of the Connecticut River Valley frontier, but a series of murders around 1779 shocked local inhabitants. At that time, Toomalek, step-son of the legendary local scout Indian Joe carried out several murders in Newbury and Haverhill.

 Toomalek causes his mother Molly and the whole native community along the Oxbow much trouble by his”lawless conduct and ferocious and revengeful disposition.” Rev. Grant Powers, in his description of the events, described Toomalek as being “truly fiendlike with a murderous disposition.”
Toomalek fell in love with a Lewa, native woman, but she rejected his advances were rejected, marrying instead Michael of the native community. In an attempt to shoot Michael, Toomalek missed and killed Lewa instead. A native council found him not guilty as the death was accidental. Subsequently, Toomalek confronted Michael and Michael was stabbed to death. The council called Toomalek’s actions self-defense.

Toomalek’s character proved true when he became involved in another affair leading to the death of Pial-Susup, , son of Capt. John Vincent, a leader of the local native community. This time, Toomalkee was found guilty and sentenced to being executed by Capt. John, in keeping with the tribal customs.
 Interestingly, Toomalek was allowed to be free on the assumption he would show up for his execution. It is said that he did showed up at the appointed time and “with a steady firm voice exclaimed ‘Now kill me! Kill me quick.”  Capt. John shot him through the head.  
The first person to be hanged at Haverhill was 21-year old Thomas Powers, an African-American.  He was executed for rape on July 28, 1796.  In a document entitled “Last Words and Dying Speech,” Powers explained that he was born in Connecticut and admitted that he had “from very early began the practice of villainy and debauchery.”

He came to Lebanon in 1793 and, on Dec 7, 1795, waylaid a young woman on horseback and raped her. Three days later, he was apprehended and imprisoned in Haverhill. Escaping on April 5, he stole a horse from Frye Bailey of Newbury. But unfamiliar with the territory he got lost. “Suspected on being a rogue,” he was again imprisoned, and again escaped. He found his way to Capt. John Mann’s in Orford where he hid before going to Lyme. There he stole a horse and rode to Hanover, where he was recaptured for the final time. 

He was tried for rape at Plymouth, found guilty and returned to Haverhill for public hanging. Noah Worchester, pastor from Thornton, preached the sermon. In his final message, Powers stated he had sold his body to doctors for $10. The two doctors took the body for dissection. One of them, a Dr. Lacy of Hopkington, NH, skinned the body and tanned the skin and had it made into a pair of boots.

The practice of public executions had been used in New Hampshire before. In Dec 1739, Sarah Simpson and Penelope Kenny were both publically executed in Portsmouth for the crime of “feloniously concealing the death of an infant bastard child.” At that time the Provincial law required the death penalty for murder, rape, homosexual acts, abortion, burglary, counterfeiting and treason.

 Eliphaz Dow of Hampton Falls, NH was found guilty for the Dec 1754 murder of Peter Clough. Clough’s death came during a fight resulting from a long-standing feud between the two men. Dow struck Clough with a hoe. Despite pleas of self-defense, he was found guilty and on May 8, 1755 he was executed in Portsmouth. He was the first man executed by New Hampshire.

 A similar fate befell Daniel Davis Farmer who was hanged in Amherst in 1822 for the murder of Ann Ayer of Goffstown. 

 Vermont also held public executions. In 1808, Cyrus Dean was executed in Burlington before a crowd of 10,000. He was a member of the crew of the Black Snake, a boat used to smuggle items from Canada via Lake Champlain. In Aug 1808, a confrontation between federal agents and the crew of the Black Snake caused the death of Lt. Daniel Farmington. Dean was tried and found guilty and sentenced to be hanged.

A second execution and a nation-wide movement against the death penalty caused the Vermont legislature to debate such public spectacles. On Feb 8, 1839, Archibald Bates was executed for murder in Bennington. He had shot his sister-in-law. The jury handed down a verdict of guilty after 15 minutes of deliberation.

 Estimates of the crowd at the time ranged up to 25,000, but later revisions settled on about 10,000. One woman was said to have walked 40 miles so as not to miss the event. One observer wrote: “The conduct of the spectators was degrading to human nature.” After discussing such public spectacles, the Vermont Legislature pass a law that all future executions would be within the prison yard at Windsor.

 The county seat at Haverhill continued to host is share of public executions.
On the evening of Dec 17, 1805, Josiah Burnham killed Russell Freeman and Capt. Joseph Starkweather. The three men were incarcerated for debt in Haverhill. The deed was done with a double-edged knife that Burnham had concealed. 

In May 1806, in Haverhill, “Bloody” Burnham was convicted of murder on both counts and sentenced to be hanged on July 15. He was granted a stay of execution “so that he might have further time to prepare for death.” Because Haverhill was the county seat, the execution was held near Powderhouse Hill. On Aug 12, a crowd of 10,000, including people of all ages, gathered. A group of Bradford residents went to the top of Wright’s Mountain that day and through a telescope watch the hanging about 6 miles away.   
After a service that included prayer and an “execution sermon,” Burnham was given an opportunity to speak.  He confessed his crime and accepted his punishment.  

In 1848, Rev. Enos Dudley of Grafton, NH was accused of murdering his wife. He had taken her out for a sleigh ride and returned several hours later with her dead body. He said that the sleigh had overturned resulting in her death. However, when he built a homemade casket and organized a quick funeral, suspicions arose. When her body was exhumed it was found she had been strangled. Dudley was arrested.

In the subsequent trial, evidence seemed to indicate he had been involved in an “improper intimacy” with a young woman. In late 1848, Dudley was found guilty of murder. He was hanged at Haverhill on May 23, 1849. “He solemnly protested his innocence and met his sentence unmoved.”    

Samuel Mills, the Franconia murderer, was executed at Haverhill on May 6, 1868. The news of his crime and execution was carried in varying details from the local National Opinion to newspapers as far away as Iowa. 

In Dec 1866, Mills had killed 68-year old George Maxwell of Franconia in what was described as “a cruel massacre…a crime of a most brutal character.” Maxwell had been bludgeoned to death in his own home after giving Mills shelter. Mills then stole Maxwell’s horse and buggy and made his escape.  He eventually ended up in Montreal and beyond.  

Authorities hired Boston private detective Moses Sargent to follow Mills’ trail. On Jan 20, 1867, Sargent arrested Mills in Illinois and returned him to Boston. He was brought to Littleton and in early April 1867 was found guilty at Haverhill.  Before the appointed date he escaped from the local jail twice.

Reports of the crowd that gathered on the appointed day ranged from 3,000 to 5,000. Some came by special train. One reporter wrote: “Hundreds started at midnight and trudged into town to form a part of the novel and imposing throng.” A notable feature of the crowd was the number of women and children.

After the execution, “the multitudes departed with the gratifying satisfaction that the world is relieved of at least one of the most heartless wretches that ever disgraced it.” That common attitude toward public executions was not shared by the Boston Traveler. Their reporter wrote “Such an execution as this is a disgrace to the civilized state.”

 That view reflect continued criticism of these public events. Within a year of Mills’ death in Haverhill, the New Hampshire Legislature mandated that executions be carried out only within the prison walls in Concord. 

Probably the most notorious local murder of the 19th century took place in Hanover in 1891. The murderer was George Abbott, aka Frank Almy. The victim was Christie Warden. 

Abbott grew up in North Thetford, the grandson of Eliphalet Abbott of Fairlee. From his early years he displayed a tendency toward lawlessness. He was kicked out of the Thetford school for theft and left town. However, he returned to the area in the early 1870s and began a series of burglaries from Barnet, VT to Lyme NH. He broke into one Orford home twice.  In 1874 he was apprehended and spent four years in the NH State Prison. 

Upon release he came back to the area and by November he and his gang was again being sought by lawmen from Woodsville to Lyme. He was apprehended and sentenced to 15 years in Windsor State Prison. In 1887, he escaped and avoided capture by changing his name to Frank Almy.

In 1890 he began living with the farm family of Andrew Warden of Hanover. “Some sort of courtship” developed between Almy and daughter Christie Warden. Worried, Warden fired Almy.  Almy continued to hang around Hanover and on July 17 confronted Christie walking on the road with several others.

Almy dragged Christie away and shots were fired. When help arrived, Christie’s body was found. She had been shot in the head and once in the genitalia, destroying any possible evidence of rape.  Hundreds of armed men began searching for Almy and a $5,000 reward was posted.
Instead of running away, Almy hid in the Warden’s hay barn and for a month lived by stealing food.  His hideout was discovered and on Aug 19, a party of up to 1,000 men surrounded the barn. With cries of “lynch him” ringing out, Almy was hauled away. 

Local newspaper coverage was “intense and lurid” and inflamed local citizens. Almy decided on a bench trial in Plymouth before a two-judge panel. He took the stand in his own defense but the verdict was guilty. But Almy was not there to hear it. He had been removed to Concord for fear of a lynching.

But that removal raised questions about the trial and in April 1892 a second trial was held, again with a guilty verdict. On May 16, 1892 he mounted the gallows at the State Prison. Despite an initial bungling in the procedure, 14 minutes later ”the Thetford terror” was declared dead.

The Orleans County Monitor of Nov 11, 1910 carried a news item about a drunken brawl between two Ryegate men. The headline read “May Mean Another Murder Trial.” The confrontation took place on Saturday night, November 5, 1910 between Andreani Andraguillui and Pietro Nicoli. Nicoli was struck down and found unconscious the next morning.

When, three days later, he had not regained consciousness, an Italian doctor from Barre was summoned. The diagnose was a fractured skull. Andraguillui was arrested.  Nicoli, the reporter wrote, “probably will not live.” There was no further news about this case.
This was not the only case where alcohol played a significant role in the death of a local resident as we will see in the next column. . 

Thursday, February 13, 2020

1945: Hanging On Toward Victory

7TH BOND DRIVE. In May 1945, the U.S. Government called on citizens to buy additional war bonds. This effort to raise funds for the war effort and to combat inflation exceeded all expectations with over $156 billion raised.  

THETFORD RINGS OUT VICTORY.  Citizens, young and old, gathered at the Timothy Frost Methodist Church in Thetford Center to ring the church bell to celebrate the end of World War II. (Thetford Historical Society)


HOMECOMING MARINE. On October 13, 1945, The Saturday Evening Post featured this Norman Rockwell tribute to returning servicemen. This local study of hero worship features a local garage handout in Arlington, VT in which the young man worked before the war. 

”We are just getting into the toughest part of the fighting in the shooting and killing war. The toughest days for us on the home front are ahead of us.”  Charles A. Pumley, U. S. House of Representatives, January 30, 1945.

“This is the day we have waited for since Pearl Harbor. This is the day when fascism finally dies, as we always knew it would.”  President Harry S. Truman, August 14, 1945

In the seven months between these two statements, Americans continued to struggle with the challenges of total war. However, there was a light at the end of the tunnel. This column deals with those challenges and expectations, especially on the local home front. The public seemed to recognize that this last difficult period was just an interlude before the end, before victory.

To understand the yearnings for peace, one needs only to understand the local contributions to the war effort. Hundreds of young men and women joined the services in numbers equal to that of the Civil War. Many more left to work in war production. Vermont had 38,000 men and women in service and New Hampshire had 60,000. Dozens of local men and hundreds statewide lost their lives.

Daily life on the home front was challenged by a state of total war, with virtually every aspect of life affected. The prospects of peace meant the end of food and gas rationing, news censorship, the blackouts, the scrap and war bond drives and so many loved ones stationed far from home.

The winter of 1944-45 was one of the most difficult of the entire war. Despite successes in both theaters, America suffered 77,000 casualties in the Battle of the Bulge and the Pacific campaign was taking a heavy toll. That winter brought the war-weary nation increasing costs for consumer goods, increased rationing and continuing concern for local men and women in the service.

There were continued shortages of food, fuel and manufactured consumer goods such as automobiles, farm machinery and household appliances. It was reported that civilian supplies were at their lowest level than at any point and every effort would be made to “assure equitable distribution.” It was also reported that there was a flourishing black market for many rationed or unavailable items.

 In an effort to conserve fuel, gasoline continued to be rationed. In February, several local libraries were closed until coal could be obtained.  Residents were encouraged to conserve electricity. They were also encouraged to limit evening telephone calls and unnecessary train and bus travel, allowing service personnel easier access to those services.  

As the nation had to feed millions in the armed services as well as well as citizens in ravished war zones, food continued to be rationed. The United Opinion continued to feature point-saver recipes to help families deal with shortages. Gardens for Victory were still encouraged, an encouragement that probably was not needed as family gardens were a time-honored tradition. Extra sugar was made available for home canning.  

The importance of agriculture locally was reflected in almost weekly newspaper articles. Farmers were encouraged to increase production but struggled with severe shortages of grain for livestock. As with virtually every other enterprise, they suffered from the lack of labor.  

The government continued to rely on bond drives to pay for the cost of the war. Asking citizens to loan their extra money to the government at a time when there were fewer consumer products available helped to fight inflation. In May 1945, the 7th War bond drive was announced. There was concern that the defeat of Germany might weakened the appeal.  However, the drive exceeded all expectations and over $156 billion was raised. The United Opinion carried both news items and advertisements for this drive.

Local newspaper columns continued to report newsy items of civilian life. They also reported on the various stages of military life of local men from induction to discharge. While news from the war fronts was fragmented and censured, the news of  citations, injuries and deaths of local service men was common during this time. With the surrender of Germany in May, more information became available.  

The following is a sample of those news items about local men beginning in Jan 1945. S/S Harry Hinman of Newbury and Pvt. Harvey Oliver of Fairlee both killed in Belgium; PFC Arthur Bean of East Thetford awarded the Bronze Star; Bernard Bean of Orfordville “has seen plenty of action for one boy”; Lt. Harold Chase of Ely “in the thick of the European scrap.”

Additionally, PFC Daniel Bennett of Piermont was killed in Italy; Charles Zwicker of Bradford home on leave having shown “high standards of courage, initiative and discipline required during long periods of combat.” Sgt. David McLam of Ryegate returned after participating in eight major battles.  

Another local man who was assigned to the European Theatre was Major General Ernest Harmon. Harmon had grown up in West Newbury and graduated from Bradford Academy.  In Jan 1945, Harmon took command of the newly-created XXII Army Corps and led its invasion of Germany. After the surrender, he was assigned the command of the VI Corps in Germany and developed it into the US Constabulary.

Harmon was not the only man with Newbury connections in Germany after the war ended. PFC Robert Atwood was in Germany and, in 1946, served as driver for Judge Walter Beals, the presiding judge in the Nuremberg trials of major Nazi leaders.

The United Opinion featured weekly syndicated columns on war news, Hollywood gossip, sports and government activities. There were several serialized action or love stories.  Kathleen Norris’ weekly column for women warned its readers about extramarital affairs while husbands were in the service. It then turned to the subjects of the joys and challenges of a returning husband who had seen action.

As Germany and then Japan lost territory to the Allies, private American citizens as well as military personnel were freed. Lieutenant Gerald Smith of Piermont was released from a German POW camp as was Milton Partington of Topsham. The Allied capture of the Philippines brought freedom for the Day/Harrell family of Orford and the Wells family of Newbury, both of which had been imprisoned after the fall of Manila in 1942.  

Popular music mirrored the feelings of the nation during this period. The need for hope and the dangers of negative thinking were reflected in the January hit “Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive.” During the last few months of the war and during the period of reductions of military forces, popular songs reflected the changes. Reunion was a popular theme reflected in the musical hits “It’s Been a Long, Long Time” and “My Guy’s Come Home.”   

In the spring of 1945, the war in Europe came to an end with the surrender of Germany in May. In the Pacific, the island-hopping continued to make the Americans pay a heavy toll with the capture of Iwo Jima and Okinawa adding an additional 70,000 casualties. Many feared that to take the Japanese home islands by invasion would add thousands of American casualties.  

In April, President Roosevelt died. There were memorial services locally and many stores closed for two hours during the national funeral service.  The editor of United Opinion, a Republican-leaning newspaper, wrote of Roosevelt’s as a master politician with a “charming personality.”  He went on to say Roosevelt “was idolized by millions and hated by many. Few people were lukewarm toward Franklin Roosevelt.” Articles implied that most Americans were unfamiliar with President Harry Truman.

As the end of the war came into view, the United States began to move away from a war-time economy. In early June there was news of the relaxing of production controls on heavy metal products including automobiles. The newspaper also carried an advertisement that read: “Take care of your refrigerator, new ones will not be available in quantity for a long, long while.”

 Leaders were determined to avoid a post-war depression. War production began to be scaled back and Congress passed the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act, known as the G.I. Bill.   Post-war projects began to be mentioned in the United Opinion as winter turned to spring.    

Another aspect of post-war planning was to prevent international conflicts.  In 1944, an international conference was held to formulate what was to become the United Nations.  Vermont’s Senator Warren Austin helped to create the draft model for that organization.

 In March 1945 most New Hampshire town meetings considered a resolution in support of “a general system of international cooperation…having police power to maintain the peace of the world.” Both Orford and Haverhill were among those that considered the issue. State-wide the support of 2-1 in favor, but in Haverhill the vote was 178 in favor and none opposed.  

 V-E Day in May was accepted with quiet thanksgiving as Americans realized that the end of the war in Europe gave the world only partial peace. Observances were largely confined to schools and churches. In Fairlee, the children from the elementary school walked to the monument in the park for a brief ceremony. In West Newbury, the church bell rang out an invitation to an evening service of thanksgiving.

The war against Japan came to an end in August with the dropping of two atomic bombs. Locally, V-J Day emotions ran the gamut from celebration to sadness.

 In Bradford, plans had been underway for several days to welcome peace. In the previous week’s edition of the United Opinion, businesses that would be closed on whatever day peace arrived were listed in bold print. Plans were underway for a community victory church service that would be held on “the evening of the announcement.” Wood was collected for a bonfire. But when peace came, it came in a wild “orgy of celebration.”

The Opinion’s front-page article described the celebration. “The fire siren kept up a continuous noise with the whistles of the Veneer Mill and Vermont Cooperative Creamery adding to the din. Later the two churches and the school added the ringing of the bells to the other noises of joyful observance. Impromptu parades were formed; the fire truck and apparatus, autos full of delirious citizens and a host of people on foot filled the Square and street to overflowing.

 A piano on a truck appeared and dancing was indulged in. Three caskets, donated by A. E. Hale, were burned with appropriate ceremony thus committing the three War Lords to their proper places. Fun waxes fast and furious for the remainder of the evening.”

In Woodsville and Wells River a similar spontaneous outpouring was taking place. Dean Rowden, 17 years old and owner of a Model T Ford, gave little thought to gas rationing as he joined “an endless parade of people and automobiles that snaked its way back and forth between the two communities.” Six locomotives added their steam whistles to the clamor from auto horns, mill whistles and church bells.

Smaller town centers experienced smaller but no less joyful celebrations. In Thetford Center, a group gathered at the Timothy Frost Methodist Church to ring the bell. A local columnist described it as follows: “The people of the town welcomed the surrender of Japan with ringing of the church and school bells, and by several people out ringing cow bells and blowing horns. James Hovey, 88 years old, was one who helped ring the church bell on Tuesday evening. With him was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Sperry, giving the oldest and the youngest the honor of ringing for victory.”

The war had consumed the lives of Americans since Pearl Harbor. It seemed as though it would go on forever. And now it was over. Americans had survived the Great Depression and total war.  These, the military personnel and the laborers who supported them, have been called the Greatest Generation. And they were now ready to get on with their lives.


Friday, December 20, 2019

The Best Christmas Gift Ever

VINTAGE SANTA CLAUS: The post card below was sent to Anna Wilson (later Denny) of Bradford about 1912.  The written message assured her that her name was on Santa's list of good children. By that tie, Santa Claus as a bearer of gifts was well established in the minds of little children. (Bradford Historical Society).


CHRISTMAS WISH BOOK. This 1950 edition of the Sears Christmas catalog may bring back memories for readers of a certain age who looked forward to its annual arrival with anticipation.  It was normal for children to leaf through its pages and create a Christmas wish list by circling those items they desired.

MIDDLE CLASS CHRISTMAS- -For many families the gift-filled image in this advertisement was beyond their means.  Unless local organizations like Operation Santa Claus assisted, parents struggled to meet even a portion of their children's wish list.t 

HISTORICAL COLLECTION--From 19th century dolls to cap guns, toy tractor and telephone to a 1960s Fisher-Price school bus, these toys from the collection of the Bradford Historical Society were likely Christmas gift. (Larry Coffin)  

“Those parents who know that a Toy at suitable times is as useful as a book, are invited to select from our assortment some time for Christmas and New Year’s Presents for their Children.” Brinsmaid & Brothers, Church Street, Burlington, January 5, 1844.  

This advertisement in the Burlington Free Press is one of the earliest that specifically mentions toys as holiday gifts. It went on to describe a selection of blocks, crying dolls, balls, toy whips, tin horses and china animals.

The column that follows describes a variety of children’s Christmas gifts from the late 19th century through the 1970s.  Portions of the article are taken from my December 2008 column. I have added comments from folks in my bowling league, my church and at senior meal sites and from just about anyone I came in contact with who looked like they were a child before 1975.

This was unscientific and readers are invited to use their own experiences as a reflection.

 Author Stephen Nissenbaum describes the history of Christmas and notes that until the early 1800s “there were no intimate family gatherings or giving of Christmas presents to expectant children…it was neither a domestic holiday nor a commercial one.” But that started to change as a result of activities of a group of New Yorkers including Washington Irving and Clement Clarke Moore.

The writings of these two men focused on child-centered family celebrations and depicted Santa Claus much as we picture him today, the kindly maker of toys for children.

The first Christmas advertisements began to appear in New England newspapers in the 1820s. Santa Claus was included to encourage sales. Almost as quickly as these promotions began to appear, so did concern that to avoid spoiling their children, parents needed to balance indulgence with restraint.

 The “invented tradition” of Santa Claus in a domestic gift-centered setting encouraged the use of the Christmas tree after 1830. Public Christmas trees were used in Vermont and New Hampshire by the 1850’s, if not before.  By the time of the Civil War, Christmas had become a legal holiday in many states.  

 Local newspapers from the latter half of the 19th century reflect the growth of the celebration of the Christmas season. While Bradford’s National Opinion had only a few seasonal advertisements in the 1860s, local columns told of Christmas Festivals from West Fairlee and Lyme to Newbury and Woodsville. A Christmas Eve service at the West Bradford Methodist Church featured “a Christmas tree, well-filled with fruits of all kinds.”

  In a custom that continued in some towns until the 1920s, families would exchange presents in this community setting. Santa Claus appeared in Orford at the Congregational Church in December1871 “along with a large lot of presents for all.”

 In the years that followed, area merchants took full advantage of Christmas sales.  In 1874, a front page article announced that “Agents for Santa Claus have been in Bradford and called upon most of the traders in town and left a large quantity of goods suitable for Christmas and New Year’s presents.”  This “lively realization of the fancies of childhood” included rosy-cheeked dolls, whirligigs, teetotums, puzzles and games.
 A later edition reported that M.P. Warren of Fairlee “Just returned from Boston and it is surprising what Christmas gifts you can buy for 10 cts.”

Newspapers went on to report a relatively new practice: “Many of the citizens of Bradford had Christmas trees at their homes. “The earliest trees often had candles that were lit under close supervision and with a pail of water close by. The United Opinion of 1909 mentions that the Piermont church had given up candles “less Santa Claus’s whiskers catch on fire.” Stockings were hung to be filled with small gifts and fruit.  Children were admonished to be good, for bad children might receive just a lump of coal or a rotten potato.

 A number of local elders have shared their Christmas memories for the 2008. Other than Eris Eastman, the ones identified below have since passed away.  Their memories reflect Christmas in generally simpler times.

Many years ago my neighbor Florence Workman of Orford recalled her childhood experience at a community celebration in the early 1880s. She arrived with her family to see an array of gifts under the tree. “That beautiful doll could not be for me.” she thought. But, as gifts were distributed, the doll was for little Florence, a gift from her parents.

 Often money was scarce and therefore gifts were simple and usually homemade. Robert and Priscilla Fadden of North Haverhill, recalled Christmas as they were growing up in Piermont in the 1920s. Robert recalls that he received homemade gifts such as knitted items or a homemade toy. Some store-bought items such as pants or gloves were purchased in Bradford. Priscilla recalls the Piermont school pageant and tree at the town hall, but also recalls that “slow but sure, gifts began to be given at home.”

Lucy Dutton Farley of Wells River recalled that in the 1930s, Christmas was a simple time. Homemade gifts and homegrown food were among her favorite memories. Her family joined others for free movies at Woodsville’s Tegu’s Theatre complete with small gifts. Roland Moore of Woodsville has similar memories: of a whole fifty cents to spend on gifts for his mother, brother and grandparents. Ten cents for each left young Roland with a dime to buy a game for himself, something he purchased after bargaining down the price at a local store.

 The amount of anticipated gifts depended on the fortunes of one’s family, with a bag of marbles or small doll being a major gift for some. Roy Tyler, born in Haverhill in 1920, recalled that when his family lost their farm in McIndoe Falls, their Christmases were “lean.” In contrast, Eris Eastman recalled that her Taplin Hill family was able to provide “lots of gifts at home.”

 After the lean years of the Depression and World War II, the prosperity of the post-war years had its impact on Christmas. But as before, each family fashioned its own traditions. Perhaps it was saving in a Christmas Club or the arrival of packages from distant relatives. Santa shopped at the overflowing stores in Bradford, Wells River or Woodsville.  There was the Sears and Roebuck Christmas catalog and the Saturday Evening Post with its Rockwell Christmas cover.

  I asked a number of folks what childhood holiday gift still holds the best memories for them. Many responded without hesitation. Dolls were the most frequently mentioned gifts for little girls. Bride Doll was purchased at a local First National Store for a seven year old. “Sucker” was the name given to a “wonderfully realistic baby doll” for one little Orford child. Baby Ann for a Bradford girl’s Christmas doll.

Some gifts were fulfillments of a child’s wish list to Santa. In Jean Shepard’s classic A Christmas Story, Ralphie Parker’s wished for an official Red Ryder air rifle. The film based on that book is a regular part of current television festival schedule. Fiction became reality in 1958 for a 12-year-old West Fairlee boy who received a double barrel shotgun for Christmas. For a Bradford boy, 9, it was a pair of new skis to replace an older set. Several other men recall receiving Lincoln Logs, sleds, Tonka trucks or Erector Sets.  

Sometimes gifts were unanticipated, but became quite special. In 1945, Molly from Ryegate, 5, was told to tug on a rope poking from under her bed on Christmas morning.. Out came the sled she had wished for. In 1955, a Brownie box camera was so for a 10-year old Orford child. She recalls “I loved that camera.  It was a super gift for me.”  In 1967 a complete cowgirl outfit fulfilled the Christmas desires for a Bradford 7-year- old.

A chemistry set arrived for a self-described tomboy in 1958. It help to satisfy her interest in science. She told me she still has the gift sixty years later. Not all gifts keep such an important place as times pass.   Although she was important about 1953 for one Fairlee child, Susie Walker Doll is long gone, barely remember by her owner.

The December, 1955 editions of The United Opinion described the seasonal rush: “Stores in the village reported Christmas trade was excellent.  The Christmas lights sparkled in store windows and in streamers across Main Street.  Christmas music poured forth at frequent intervals from loud speakers, small children stared in admiration at the vast collection of toys waiting for Santa Claus…”

 On the 23rd, the newspaper reported that 30 below readings that week must have meant that Santa had left the door open when he left the North Pole. It went on to say that Christmas sales hit a record and, “Trains ran late throughout the week, so great was the burden of Christmas mail, Christmas travelers, and crippling cold.”

 One might receive Tinker Toys, Scrabble, a Barbie doll, Flying Saucer, or G.I. Joe action figure. The latter was not to be confused with a doll, of course.  If good, Santa might bring a Radio Flyer wagon or a toy John Deere tractor. Radio and later television programs such as Father Knows Best or Leave It To Beaver told of Christmas practices beyond the scope of many local families.

In most families, these gifts were in addition to new clothes or boots.  For younger children with older siblings, this was relief from hand-me-downs. Many recalled homemade hats and mittens knitted by family members or neighbors.

 Parents knew it was important to give equal presents to their children. To do otherwise might ruin a family holiday. One Fairlee resident vividly recalls how, when she was 3, her older sister got a giant bride doll while she only got a stuffed monkey. Sixty years later, she told me she still goes back to that Christmas morning memory.

The prosperity of middle class family resulted in multiple gifts under the Christmas tree. Not all shared that plenty. While those around her got a Raggedy Ann doll or a pull-behind toy elephant, another elder   recalled Christmases during the 1930s were complete devoid of gifts and celebration.

 One 80-year old Bradford resident recollected growing up in East Corinth with 10 siblings. She said that her mother made Stocking Monkeys for the girls in the family. These were dolls made from heavy duty socks. Additionally, each child had their Christmas stocking filled with an orange or apple and a popcorn ball.  Christmas morning in the late 1940s in that family was “fun, a lot of grabbing in hopes one got the right gift.”

Asked if she felt envious of children from other families, she said classmates’ experiences were about the same as hers. When asked if she remembers a special gift she gave her two sons, she immediately recalled a mid-1960s Christmas when each of the two boys received a model tractor with trailer and miniature cars.

  In 1943, 12-year old Pete got a football for Christmas.  It was extra special because it was delivered by his older brother Bill, home from service in the Merchant Marines. Asked which was the better gift, the football or his brother, Pete said both were very special.

Since the 1800s there have been the plea for considering gifts for the poor in the community.  Gift giving and charity were encouraged by commercial interests, organizations and religious groups. In 1857, the Vermont Historical Magazine included a poem by Brandon’s Mrs. A.H. Bingham.  Entitled “Christmas Gifts,” it concluded with the admonition “So give to the poor Christmas Gifts next Christmas Day.”

The Newbury column in an Dec. 1890 United Opinion called on readers to “Remember the poor with Christmas or New Year’s gifts…they will go a long way towards cheering the hearts of those whose hearts need cheer.” In Union Village, Mission Boxes were distributed around 1913.  During the Great Depression, as in the periods after World War I and the Flood of 1927, there were calls for donations to help the less fortunate.

In 1979, Operation Santa Claus began fulfilling this charge for hundreds of needy children in the area. Initially begun by members of the Bradford Lions Club, it continues to operate with the help of a large group of volunteers. For 40 years it has distributed toys, food bags, warm clothes and other gifts.

Toys for Tots and Barbara’s Red Stocking are two of similar programs helping children in both states this holiday season. I am sure those who spend so much effort to make these programs successful have the same heart felt satisfaction as many parents. That is, knowing on Christmas morning, the best gift, the one that may create memories for a life time, is one that is given to a child.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Architects & Builders: Changing the Face of the Community

“We have come to respect the work of the men who created these old buildings of such excellent proportions and who placed their restrained ornament with such assurance and effect.”  Herbert Weaton Congdon, Old Vermont Houses, 1940
WHEELER ON THE RIDGE. The Wheeler House, built on Orford's Ridge in1814-1816, is an example of fine homes in the area that were influenced by the work of architects from away.  The nearby historic marker indicates that the home "was designed by a Boston architect, probably Asher Benjamin who was then an associate of Charles Bulfinch." (Larry Coffin) 

PACKARD'S CONTRIBUTONS:  In 1889, St. Johnsbury architect Lambert Packard was hired to design this hotel for Bradford village.  It was across the street from the Woods Library Building and the former brick bank building, both of which were designed by Packard. 

GUERNSEY IN GROTON: In 1888, Montpelier architect George Guernsey was hired to draw up plans to renovate the Groton Methodist Church.  That, along with Bradford's Woos School Building, were part of that architect's contribution to building projects in towns and cities in Vermont and New Hampshire. 

Anyone who has lived in a community for a time can testify to the changes that occur in its physical face.  New buildings and infrastructure are built, sometimes replacing older ones. Other older facilities are repurposed.  Despite these changes, the impact of builders and architects of the past are still widely represented. Their contributions are so significant that many of the buildings that currently exist today are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  

This column examines some of those builders and architects, especially those from 1765 to the earliest years of the 20th century. The information is gathered from vintage newspapers, town and state histories as well as two recent publications mentioned below.

The area’s pioneers generally built log huts for their first homes. This was followed by well-built frame houses of one or two stories. The oldest wood-frame house in New Hampshire is in Portsmouth and dates from 1664 whereas the first frame house in Vermont was built in Bennington in 1763. Built in 1770, the Col. Johnston House in Haverhill was used as a blockhouse during the Revolution. The oldest house in Bradford in its original location is the 1777 Bliss house on Route 5.   

Very few of these builders were architects and many of the builders were owners. Local histories often mention individuals as builders of homes, but do not specify the craftsmen involved.  For example, beginning in 1775, Col. Thomas Johnson built four large houses near the Oxbow in Newbury. Perhaps he had the idea and money behind the projects and then hired house wrights or joiners, bricklayers and carpenters from near and far.  

Housewrights were individuals who built houses from logs they harvested, then hand-hewed into timbers.  Each timber was customized to fit with adjacent pieces. Each piece had to be marked so that the builder would know where they went. This technique was known as the scribe rule.  When the materials were prepared, house or barn raisings called on the strength of neighbors. Carpenters were craftsmen who built the structure whereas joiners did finished woodwork such as building windows or doors. Because of the overlapping of skills, many builders were both carpenters and joiners.

Those builders copied the architecture from older sections of New England. Fairlee architect Frank Barrett told me that he noticed that houses in the area seem to copy those in the area from which the builders came. In Newbury and Haverhill the houses reflect Massachusetts roots, whereas earlier houses in Hanover were built by those from central Connecticut.

Builders may also have copied patterns from the first American architectural handbook written in 1797 by Asher Benjamin of Windsor, VT. The NH historical marker at the base of the Ridge in Orford indicates that the Wheeler House, built in 1814-1816 “was designed by a Boston architect, probably Asher Benjamin who was then an associate of Charles Bulfinch. Other Ridge houses also display Asher Benjamin influence.”

As with the fine houses there, the availability of building guides meant that some of the new homes in village centers such as Haverhill Corner included features previously found in older cities such as Portsmouth or Boston.

Many of the skilled craftsmen were also farmers or mill owners. They had no formal training other than being apprentices in the craft and may not have constructed more than one or two buildings each year.   

Alonzo Fleming, a skilled carpenter and farmer, came to Newbury in 1831.  Although he was entirely self-taught and was never know to make written plans, he erected a number of buildings in Newbury and surrounding towns.   

 About 1800, the square rule was introduced. Essentially, similar timbers were interchangeable. Saw mills were more likely to turn out uniform timbers. About the same time, machine made nails began to replace hand wrought nails.   

In 1787, the Vermont General Assembly met in a newly-constructed court house opposite the Oxbow cemetery in Newbury.  Built by master-workman Jeremiah Harris of Rumney, it was believed to have been the first building in the region erected using the square rule.

Initial smaller homes were enhanced as the size and fortunes of the occupants increased. From the houses on the Ridge in Orford to the finer homes on other towns’ main streets, the rear ell was often that initial modest home. 

Although homes were often copies of down-country structures, the area’s buildings sometimes reflected different styles.  As many as one third of the earlier homes in northeastern Vermont were plank houses. The Corliss Tavern built near the Bradford Corinth line in the early 1800s was an example.  It was built with sawed timbers standing vertically side by side.  It was destroyed by fire in 1983.

In the middle of the 19th century, it was not unusual to find an area farm house connected to the barn by a series of outbuildings. At a recent presentation in Orford,  barn historian John Porter mentioned that the theory that this practice was to save the farmer from having to go outside when walking to the barn has been replaced by the idea that the connecting structures were used for supplementary activities such as blacksmithing. With the threat of fire, many of those connectors have been dismantled.

The Connecticut Valley porch was another architectural feature unique to the valley.  This recessed upper-story enclosed porch appeared around 1840. Traveling around the area one can still see this feature on houses and public buildings.  One can also see houses built of bricks or stone. Those interested in the former can see my blog entry entitled “Building With Bricks” at larrycoffin.blogspot.com. 

One of the most prolific architect builders in Vermont during the latter half of the 19th century was George H. Guernsey (1839-1900). A study of his life, published by members of the Historical Society of Bethel, Vermont, describes business blocks, churches and private dwellings he designed.

Without more formal training other than that received as an apprentice to his father, a master carpenter, Guernsey’s contributions were most visible in Montpelier. There he designed six business blocks, a church, three railroad bridges for the Montpelier and Wells River Railroad and the private residence still known as Redstone. 

The Methodist Church of Groton was the first of two local buildings designed by Guernsey.  Originally built in the 1830s, it had extensive alterations about 1864. Those alterations included turning the building northward. By 1888, the church needed to be repaired and enlarged.  Guernsey was hired and the church was remodeled with an addition, a vestry and a steeple with a belfry. The plan also called for the building to be returned to its original position facing eastward. The refurbished church was re-dedicated on December 11, 1888. 

The Groton history mentions that the actual renovator was William Goodwin. Goodwin had been involved in the lumber business since 1858.  “Goodwin’s work covered the second half of the century. He built many houses here and in neighboring towns, some of the most ‘elegant’ houses of the eighties and nineties…” Several years prior to the Groton church project, he had built the First Presbyterian Church in South Ryegate.

The second Guernsey project was Bradford’s Woods School Building. In 1893, $15,000 had been left to Bradford by the estate of John Lund Woods. Lund, a native of Corinth, had made a fortune in the lumber business in the Midwest. The bequest was to be used to replace the old Academy building.  

 As he had done several times before, Guernsey used a previous project as a model for the new one.  In this case, he revived the blueprints used for the South Royalton School building in 1892. However, He made two major changes. The South Royalton wooden building became brick and the tower was shifted from left front to right front. By the fall of 1893, the new building was under construction.  Completed in 1894, the total cost of the project was $17, 316, with the amount over the bequest paid by the School District.  

Lambert Packard (1832-1906) was another architect who had a profound impact on the architecture of the area. In 2018 historian Allen D. Hodgdon published an in-depth study of Packard’s works.

Packard’s father was a house joiner and carpenter and his sons were his apprentices. Lambert’s older brother Alonzo became a carpenter-designer and, in 1874, built the former Wells River High School.

In 1866, Lambert Packard became an employee of the Fairbanks family in St. Johnsbury.  During his career he built a number of homes, churches and business buildings there, many of them at the direction and with the financial backing of his employers.  Fairbanks Museum and the Athenaeum are just two of Packard’s contributions.

In 1889, Packard was hired to build a hotel in Bradford to replace the Trotter House that had burned in 1887. Built by William Bray of St. Johnsbury, the resulting Hotel Low, later the Bradford Hotel, remained a major presence until it was torn down in 1960 to make room for a new Bradford National Bank building. That bank had occupied the brick building across the street, a building that Packard designed in 1891. That three-story building housed the bank, other businesses and the Bradford Guard Armory. A distinctive architectural feature that still exists is the single-piece two-story copper turret.

In 1894, Packard was again asked to design a building for Bradford.  It was a new library to be built with another bequest from John L. Woods. The Woods Library building was dedicated on July 4, 1895. As there had been some disputes over changes to his designs, Packard apparently broke with his tradition and asked for the return of his blueprints.

During the decade of the 1890s, Packard was also involved in a number of projects in Woodsville. In 1896- 1897, he designed St. Joseph’s Catholic Church on Pine Street.  It was built by James Dalton of Wells River. Packard also designed the Tilton and Quincy Scott Blocks on Central Street.  

 There were also several more local architects. Frederick Bigelow Staples moved from Corinth to Bradford in the 1860s. A master of building design and carpentry, he was asked to design a home on Main Street for future governor Roswell and Elizabeth Farnham. The Italianate-style house he build was inspired by noted architects of the period.

In 1891, he was asked to do all of the elaborate interior work on the new bank building being designed by Packard. In ill health, he refused the task, but did agree to be a supervisor of others.  

George W. Farr (1832-1908) was a Bradford native.  As an architect and builder, his work remains a major part of Bradford village.  In 1875, Farr was hired to build a new Congregational church.  Along with Edwin Aldrich he designed and built a new structure.  The local newspaper reported, “The appearance was very fine, an ornament to the village.”

In 1879, Farr was involved in the remodeling of the Methodist church across the street.  He added two steeples and remodeled the existing building.  In 1883, a major fire consumed a number of businesses on the west side of Bradford’s Main Street.  Farr was hired to replace those burned wooden building with substantial brick structures. He built the Stevens Block in 1883 and the Union Block in 1884.     

Before moving to Missouri in 1885, Farr built a number of houses in the area. One of those is the large house on North Main currently being used as a veteran’s home.Farr and a crew of 12 men were also hired to do finishing work for S. S. Houghton stock barn being built in Orford in 1877. The barn, one of the largest and most expensive stock barns in New England at the time, was designed by architect Calvin Ryder of Massachusetts. The master builder was S. S. Ordway of Lyndon, VT. The barn measured 440 ft. on the west and north side and had a 136 ft. tower. It burned in 1930.

The sources that I reviewed for this column were filled with other examples of builders of barns, houses, churches and other structures. They, like Bradford’s Edwin Aldrich, can be described as having “done much in the way of house building here.”  The pains-taking workmanship they prized is a lasting testament to their skills.

The current dilemma area residents often face is how to preserve those private and public structures so that they can still be prized for years to come. Fortunately, we still have crafters who are able to repair and replicate that earlier workmanship. Often, however, necessary funds, the will to have the work done and the desire for modernity stand dangerously in the way.      

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Horse Tales

PETERS' MORGANS: Members of Bradford's Peters family pose in front of their Upper Plain home with two of their most influential stallions.  The family's Morgans had a higher percentage of the blood of the original Just Morgan of any strain of the time.  Peter's Morgan (right) is the sire of Peter's Ethan Allen 2nd (left) The latter is cited as one of the most influential Morgans of his day. (Courtesy photo)

below: RURAL MAIL ROUTE: About 1904, 20 year old Walter Stearns took over a rural mail route in Bradford with this horse drawn cart. Other delivery wagons brought meat, milk, and other supplies directly to households.  Stearns continued his route until about 1921 when he went to Kansas City to learn automobile mechanics. (Bradford Historical Society),

HORSE POWER IN THE FIELD: Horses were a main source of power for America's farmers until the introduction of the tractor after 1930. In 1942, however, this horse stilled worked the fields at the Worthley farm on Taplin Hill in Corinth. (Philip Ross Hastings) 


“The greatest part of the labor upon the farms, and nearly all the whole of the travel and transportation in the state is performed by horses, and large numbers of fine horses are annually sent to market out of state.”  Zadock Thompson, History of Vermont, 1842.

Since settlers first came to establish local towns, horses have played an important part in their culture.  What follows is a collection of stories on the role of horses prior to 1920 as described in Vermont’s newspapers, local histories and journals.   

The first European explorers of the area came on foot. But the first families often came with a horse and a few possessions. For example, in 1765, John Mann and his wife came astride their horse from Hebron, CT to become the first settlers of Orford.

 Not all residents in these early communities owned a horse and, sometimes, an owner would loan his horse to another. The 1789 census of Ryegate listed 47 taxpayers but only 21 horses, with only two persons owning more than one. As the community grew, the number of horses increased as follows: 1800: 80 households, 60 horses; 1810: 152 households, 120 horses and 27 colts, and by 1840, 253 households and 285 horses.  

During a recent presentation, Orford historian Arthur Pease revealed that in 1850 the 10 local farmers with the most improved land had an average of 5.3 horses while the 10 with the least amount of improved land had only .7 horses.  

Early roads were generally too rough for wheeled vehicles drawn by horses. After 1810, sufficient improvements had been made to allow the use of horse-drawn carriages, buggies and farm wagons. Winter travel featured horse-drawn sleighs and sleds.

 Stage coaches began to operate on established routes. In 1814, a line of stages began to run from Haverhill to Concord, NH. In 1834, a stage left Haverhill three times a week for Albany via Chelsea. Stages were pulled by four, six or eight “steaming horses.”

Even after the coming of the railroad in 1848, stage routes connected outlying towns to railroad stations. For example, the route from East Orange and West Topsham to Bradford offered  passenger and mail service.  

There were a number of local horse breeders and trainers. The Peters family of Bradford was well known for the Morgan horses they raised. About 1850, Joseph Howard Peters, reacting to the decline in the sheep industry, turned to horses. He described the Morgan breed as “the cheapest kept, most hardy and most profitable horses.”

The Morgans he and his descendants developed had a high percentage of the original Justin Morgan blood of any strain at the time. The most famous Peters’ stallions included Peter’s Vermont, Peter’s Morgan, Damon and Peters Ethan Allen 2nd.

Morgan horses, known for their stamina, spirit and beauty, were consider general-purpose horses capable of performing a wide variety of tasks.  It was said: “The Morgan horse is one thing, all other horses are something else.”

At the time nearly every farmer in Vermont had one or more Morgans and the breed became synonymous with Vermont. Many were breeders. In 1888, Newbury had at least 30 farmers listed as breeders or trainers, although not all with Morgans.  

 When describing the attributes of the Morgan to my history classes, I upgraded an old description to one that would be understood by teenagers. A Morgan was like a good pickup truck.  One could use it to haul loads, shine it up to pick up a date and, in a challenge, could show off it speed over a short distance.  I think they understood.     

The S. S. Houghton Stock Farm in lower Orford raised blooded trotting horses. By 1880, it was offering stud service by a horse named George Wilkes, Jr., one of four stallions. Later, Morgans were added.  In 1895, the farm advertised a gray gelding, 17 hands high, a lady’s horse that “can road eight miles an hour.”

Horses raised in the area were taken to Boston and other markets. Likewise, horses were brought in from Boston, Canada and the West for sale locally.  In 1895, Turner and Smith of Orford advertised 18 horses from Iowa for sale. F. E. Kimball’s stable in Newbury brought in horses by the car load from locations such as Wisconsin.   

 As early as 1867, there were warnings about the sales of the best animals while keeping poorer mares and stallions. “When will our farmers learn to keep their best horses at home and improve their stock” one observer noted. That came with the announcement that D. F. Tillotson of Orford had sold a stallion to a man from California for $6,000.  

There were many incidents of accidents involving horses. Despite the use of blinders, horses often became frightened by noises, objects in the road or other horses. In 1854, one observer wrote “We want horse for all purposes, that are not cowardly, will not take fright; for those of that temperament are ever dangerous to whomever may use them, and to persons in the street.” Over the years, frightened horses resulted in injury and death to passengers and damage to property as well as to the animals involved.   

Runaway horses posed a threat to pedestrians. In 1868 in Bradford, a runaway stage drawn by four horses “dashed through the street at great speed.” In 1906, several Vermont newspapers carried the sad story of William Silsby, an “active and highly respected citizen” of Newbury who was struck and killed by a runaway.

In the early 1900s, horses were often frightened when they met automobiles on the road. In 1909, the horse drawing carriage carrying Mrs. McCanna of Ryegate was frightened by an auto on the road from Woodsville. The buggy was demolished and McCanna suffered a broken leg. “No blame was attached to the occupants or driver of the auto.”

In 1904, William Thompson, Corinth’s legislature representative, declared it was not safe for a woman to drive a horse on the highway where an auto might come along as they were “devilish contraptions.”

Not all such incidents resulted in injury. In 1897, a tongue-in-cheek newspaper notice told of a young West Newbury couple whose horse became frightened and “nearly upset the occupants, and unfortunately, the young man was so much engaged that it was difficult to get the horse under control. No damage was done.”

As horses were both accessible and valued, horse thieves appeared regularly. In Nov. 1863, the following Bradford notice appeared: “Sheriff Peckett caught two horse thieves in the village.  A large amount of thievery has been carried on lately, but the authorities have been very successful in taking the rogues.” Sometimes stolen horses were taken several communities away and offered for sale.

Heavy draft horses were used by local industries. One newspaper article mentioned that about 1840  a local team of nine horses was seen pulling a “tremendously heavy load of merchant’s goods.”   

After 1865, heavy horse-drawn wagons filled with copper ore rumbled through West Fairlee on the way to Ely on the Fairlee-Thetford line, returning later with loads of coke. In 1895, similar operations brought ore down from Pike Hill in Corinth. Newspaper notices mentioned horse-drawn wagons and sleds carrying granite in Ryegate, hardwood in Ely and logs from Quintown.  Many of these draft animals were from the West.

In 1911, it was reported that Mr. and Mrs. William Putnam of West Newbury, both in late 70s, picked 10,000 lbs. of cider apples and took them to the factory in South Newbury with one horse.

How horses were treated was totally dependent on their owners. One Orford resident wrote a long letter to the local newspaper on the “mercilessness shown to horses.”  In 1846, Vermont pass a law making cruelty to animals illegal, but only if the animal belonged to another. After the American Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded in 1866, state chapters began to be formed.

 In 1872, the Portsmouth NH chapter was one of the first to be established and was the basis for the state organization. While there was interest in a similar group in Vermont as early as 1869, it was not incorporated until 1888. This movement successfully challenged the strict property concept that had protected cruelty of animals by their owner.     

Horses played an important role in support of Americans at war. They were a vital part of cavalry and artillery units and draft and pack horses transported supplies. Infantry unit officers were usually mounted.  In 1862, the citizens of Bradford purchased and transported a horse for their neighbor Lieut. Col.l Dudley Andross of the Ninth Vermont Regiment. The First Vermont Cavalry, mounted entirely on Morgans, saw considerable action in the Civil War.

The largest cavalry battle of the Civil War involved 17,000 horsemen in the Battle of Brandy Station Virginia in June 1863. It is estimated that over one million horses and mules were killed in military action during the Civil War. That is perhaps because horses were a prime target as their death left artillery and cavalry units significantly weakened.  

World War I saw a similar role and plight for horses. America was a primary source of horses for European allies, with perhaps one million horses shipped abroad. It is the last major conflict in which American cavalry units used horses rather than tanks. Bradford’s Harold Haskins recalled having to put a gas mask on his horse during a night-time attack in April 1918. Capt. Ernest George Harmon of West Newbury recounted an experience in Sept 1918 in which he remained astride his horse for three straight days during an advancement against the enemy.  

The agricultural revolution of the 19th century was powered by horses.  In the period after 1830, a number of horse-drawn farm implements such as the reaper, rake and mower were introduced, greatly reducing labor and increasing production.  Horse power was also worthwhile for other purposes.  A letter to the New England Farmer magazine in 1859 suggested other uses for horse-powered devices: “The horse can saw the wood, wash the clothes, churn, turn the grindstone, cut the hay, shell the corn, drive the small circular saw and pump the water.”    

There were a number of local businesses that catered to the horse- centered community. There were blacksmiths, stables that rented or sold horses, hardware stores that sold horse-powered machinery, harnesses, blankets and horse feed as well as veterinarians.  The market area of central villages was about the distance a farmer could drive in with his horse and be back home for milking.

Horse drawn delivery wagons carried meat, milk, and other products directly to households. Doctors in buggies made home visits and horses pulled hearses.  Station wagons met railroad passengers. School children were transported with horse power as was firefighting equipment.. Horses dominated the culture of the two states.   

Horse shows and racing at local fairs allowed owners to show off their prized animals. Virtually every agricultural fair in the area included horse shows. In 1892, the Waits River Valley Fair in East Corinth featured various classes including stallions, brood mares, gent’s single drivers, matched horses, and draught horses. Horse and ox pulls were also a standard feature. In 1906, horse trots were a major feature at the Bradford Fair, attracting as many as 10,000 spectators.

There were occasions when the town centers became crowded with horse teams. In 1904, the road to the Bradford fair gate were backed up with wagons and carriages.  It was reported that, on some days, as many as 40 teams crowded Wells River’s main streets.  For both busy streets and farmyards, the problem of horse manure or “street dirt” encouraged flies and, in some people, horse fever.  

In August 1922, the Caledonian Record carried the following: “No one need fear that the automobile, despite its popularity, will ever supplant the horse.” In 1915, it was estimated there were 20 million horses in the United States. The increasing number of automobiles clearly mirrored the decline in the number of horses. Throughout the 1920s the number declined at the rate of a half million per year.

Each of the horse-centered topic above are just a sampling of the information available. I did not include  a good examination of the symbiotic relationship between animal and owner.  Whether its name was Baldy or Beauty, Danny or Dick, the relationship between a horse and its owner’s relationship was often close.

 My father-in-law, Harry Martin, told of a special family horse he had as a young man  If Harry stayed out late and fell asleep in his wagon on the way to the farm on the Bradford-Newbury line, the horse saw both of them home safety.  No automobile, however favored, could have done that.  Yet.

Friday, May 10, 2019

Giving Mom A Break: Work Never Done

This vintage Mother's Day card was published n 1914, the same year that President Wilson proclaimed the day as a national holiday. Carnations were the traditional symbol of motherhood.

Dreading Blue Monday: The burdens of washing family clothes was somewhat reduced by the introduction of the motor-driven washing machine. This 1930 photograph by Farm Security Administration photographer Louise Rosskam illustrates the burden still borne by many Vermont housewives. Library of Congress

Electrified Ironing: During the 1920s the drive to promote the consumption of electrical appliances led to a sharp increase in their use in American homes. For example, by the end of that decade sixty percent of homes had replaced the stove-heated iron with an electric one.
 Journal Opinion May 8, 2019
“Man may work from sun to sun, but woman’s work is never done.”

This rhymed couplet dates from the late 18th century and, for many women, still holds true today.  Sunday, May 12 is Mother’s Day and along with dining out, flowers and other gifts of love and appreciation, mothers might be given a temporary reprieve from never-ending tasks of housework and raising children.

This column explores the origins of Mother’s Day and then reviews of some innovations that changed women’s household work prior to 1965. Many of the memories were gathered during recent interviews at four local senior centers. The women I talked with recalled their own experiences as well as those of their mothers and grandmothers.

Celebrations of mothers can be traced back to earlier civilizations. The Christian festival known as “Mothering Sunday” is a precedent for our modern observance. In England, “going a-mothering” and gifting mothers with a simnel fruitcake cake was a tradition. 

There had been earlier efforts by activists, such as Julia Ward Howe, to recognize mothers as a way to teach improved child care, to reconcile the nation after the Civil War and promote world peace. In 1909, the United Opinion included a column that mentioned “Mother’s Day, which is coming to be a national event, is being observed in many places for the first time.” The Modern Woodmen organization was among those that encouraged it by attending church services as a body.        

 Anna Jarvis of Grafton, West Virginia is credited with the movement that led to Mother’s Day becoming a recognized American holiday in 1914.  That year, after President Woodrow Wilson issued the first Mother’s Day proclamation, one Vermont newspaper concluded “This day has taken hold wonderfully all over the country.”

In the years that followed, mention of local Mother’s Day observances usually involved church services.  Attending mothers were often presented with a carnation, a symbol of motherhood. Only later did advertisements for gifts or special dining experiences become common. 

In early New England, women were usually described by reference to the men in their lives. The most recognition that women could hope for outside of the home was “the dignity of anonymity.”  Within the family setting, their work was never done. They raised the children they birthed, made meals from the food they grew or slaughtered and washed the clothes they handmade. They supported their men and did double duty when they were away. Their title of honor was “goodwife.”

The following descriptions of so-called “women’s work” depended on rural or village settings, marital status, number of members of the household and the impact of change. For most women, changes in their lives were incremental. For example, electricity came to most village homes by the early 20th century, whereas in rural areas it may not have arrived until the late 1940s. With electricity came relief from some of the burdens of homemaking previously done largely by hand power.

In an interview for Scott and Elsie Hastings’ book on Vermont farm families in the 1930s, 92-year old Grace Hutchinson of East Corinth told of her pre-electricity home and said: “People who were born into a world full of electricity and appliances, they don’t have the experience of knowing what it would be like without them.” She went on to say that the housewife of that earlier time had “an awful lot more skills.”

The industrial revolution of the 19th century was instrumental in bringing about new household products and services. Those changes increased in rapidity in the 20th century.  

Food preparation had always been central to women’s work in the home. Meals had to be made “from scratch” from recipes often kept in a woman’s head. Interviewees said that they often made dishes their mothers made, and considered themselves lucky if they had mother’s box of handwritten recipes.  

 From their gardens and barns in rural areas and from merchants in urban areas, women obtain the family’s food. Even when food was obtained from outside the home, it came unprepared. Prepared food in boxes or cans did not arrive until early in the 20th century and frozen foods not until the 1940s.  

Canning was central to preserving summer’s bounty. Interviewees told of the pride their mothers felt with cupboards filled with up to 500 jars of canned vegetables, meat and fruit. Crocks were used for pickled or salted food. Those who grew up on farms mentioned their mothers making cheese, butter and sometimes, homemade ice cream.

Keeping food cold included hanging meat in the shed during winter months. Baked goods could be stored in a cold attic or back pantry. Iceboxes kept food cold with ice harvested from nearby lakes or delivered by a village iceman. 

In the 1920s, manufacturers began a campaign to replace the icebox with electric refrigerators. The initial cost prevented widespread sales until the late 1930s. For the housewife, this appliance meant the elimination of the drip pan mess, food that was kept fresher longer and the availability of a small freezer. One woman said “The day in 1950 when we got a refrigerator, that was a happy day!”

 In the early 1950s, home freezers came on the market, replacing community freezer lockers. This allowed for the extension of seasonal bounty. My dad sold home freezers at that time and the one we owned was filled with our own meat and vegetables. We enjoyed corn on the cob well into winter.

Cooking stoves began to appear in the mid-19th century. Housewives learned how to cook on a wood, coal or gas burning stove to produce pies, breads, soups and other dishes. The Glenwood range was very popular and local ads touted it as “the range that makes cooking easy.” In 1911, a St. Johnsbury newspaper advertisement suggested “A gas range makes summer cooking bearable.” Electric ranges began to compete with these cooking modes by the 1920s. While microwave ovens were first sold in 1946, low cost models were not available until the late 1960s.

Taking care of the family’s clothes was time-consuming. The women I interviewed said their mothers made their children’s clothing, manufactured on a foot treadle sewing machine. During the Great Depression, everything from sheets to dresses and children’s clothes were made from cotton grain bags.

One woman said that her first store dress came in 1944 when she needed a dress for her senior events.  When asked how she felt about wearing homemade clothes, she replied “happy and proud.” Additionally, housewives spent time repairing clothes. My mother, relaxing from the day’s work, darned stockings or patched worn pants for my father and three brothers. 

Many housewives dreaded Monday wash days. Monday seemed practical as weekly baths were often taken on Saturday night with clothes changed in anticipation of church on Sunday. Only after 1900 were newly constructed homes expected to have modern indoor plumbing. Prior to that time it was not uncommon for all bathing and household cleaning water to be lugged by hand, “ a staggering burden” for the housewife.   

 Wringer washing machines replaced hand-scrubbing of clothes. In 1908, Hurley’s Thor electric-powered washing machines came on the market. Within the next decade, local advertisements promised the washer would “leave you cool and refreshed, relieved from the nerve-wearing strain of old-fashioned, hot wash days.” These ads were accompanied by those for new types of granulated washing soaps.

Prior to the introduction of the first domestic automatic washing machine in 1937, the washing machine was rolled to the sink, clothes sorted and washed and put through the attached wringer before being hung on the line to dry. In winter, wet clothes were hung indoors or, if hung outdoors, were often brought in frozen, stiff as boards.  Cloth diapers and personal care items posed special washing issues as they had to be boiled to be sanitized.

Clothes also had to be ironed. Either with a hand iron or with the help of a mangle, clothes were pressed before being put away. The mangle allowed clothes to be pressed by being passed through two rollers. Some mothers were known to even iron their husband’s underwear, although those I spoke with laughed at the suggestion.

While new electrical appliances such as these were advertised as labor saving, other changes in society often filled in with additional duties. For example, doing laundry became easier, but families acquired more clothes and washed them more frequently.

Keeping the rest of the house clean was a major task for housekeepers. Wood-burning stoves, kerosene lamps and tracked in dirt were constant challenges. Chamber pots had to be emptied daily. The electric vacuum cleaner began to replace the hand sweeper in the early 20th century for those who had electricity. Brands such as Hoover and Electrolux  were sold nationally by the 1930s, often by door-to-door salesmen.

Spring meant a top-to-bottom cleaning for many households. Rugs and even mattresses were taken out and beaten. Windows and curtains were washed along with floors and walls. Until the 1930s, hot water for cleaning household items and family members was heated on the stove.

As important as any of the work mentioned above, the role of mother as caretaker defined her place in the family. Many early American women bore up to eight or more children, binding them to constant tasks of child care. Additionally, mothers have always been the primary caregiver for those in the family who were ill or elderly.

Unless there was alternative child care available for infants, women were less able to be employed outside of the home. One woman told me she belonged to the Bradford Pre-School Mothers Club in the 1960s because membership was required for use of the club’s pre-school day nursery, allowing her to hold a job.

I asked the women I interviewed who, in their experience, helped with the household duties. Sometimes there were newspaper ads for “a young woman to help with household tasks.” Older daughters also helped. Husbands and sons rarely assisted even when they had the spare time.  That is not to say that husbands did not work hard, but rather that wives seem to work longer. For women who accepted a career outside of the home, the job and housekeeping meant double-duty.

That was not true in all cases. One Orford woman said that when she went to work outside the home around 1966, her husband helped with cooking, “taking up the slack.” Daughters, mothers and sisters also helped with childcare and other tasks.  Most said that their brothers and sons were generally not taught nor expected to do household tasks.   

When asked how her mother did all she did around the home, one woman said “I don’t know how she did it.” Getting up early was one way, with sleep deprivation normal. Perhaps that was the only way a woman could get ahead of the day’s chores before other family members demanding her attention. One woman said that her father expected a full breakfast meal when the morning barn chores were finished. That might include fresh pastry, vegetables and meat.  

Another coping technique was multitasking. Perhaps it was the task of caring for youngsters that made most mothers masters at dealing with more than several things at a time. Cooking a meal while cuddling a child and starting a wash is something most mothers have accomplished. 

Recent studies have shown that there is still a gender gap when it comes to household chores. Women, these studies indicate, do a larger percentage of chores around the house than their partners, “regardless of either’s career or income.”

I close this incomplete study of the work of mothers  and Mother’s Day with two quotes from the past.

In 1914, the Burlington Free Press article on “The Significance of Mother’s Day” warned that the true sentiment of the day was endangered by “the wild rush of commercialism.” It still may be.

In 1876, Silas McKeen described the work of Lydia Peters Baldwin. While other women may not have accomplished quite the work of Baldwin, his concluding comment about her applies to many mothers: “A woman who accomplished a work so great and good, deserves to be held in honorable and lasting remembrance.” Hats off to super moms, past and present!